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Table 2 Multivariate analysis for the improvement in LV-EF

From: Different effects of SGLT2 inhibitors according to the presence and types of heart failure in type 2 diabetic patients

 + 5% improvement in LV-EF+ 10% improvement in LV-EF
Adjusted OR95% CIp-valueAdjusted OR95% CIp-value
Age (per +1 year)0.9650.937–0.9930.0150.9750.949–1.0020.070
Male sex0.2710.125–0.5840.001
Hypertension0.5210.278–0.9750.042
SGLT2i2.3841.266–4.4880.0072.2361.106–4.5210.025
Standard dose of beta-blockers for HFa2.8491.126–7.2050.027
LV-EDV (per +1 mL)0.9870.977–0.9960.007
LV-EF (per +1%)0.9190.891–0.948< 0.0010.9280.906–0.950< 0.001
PASP (per +1 mmHg)1.0251.000–1.0510.049
  1. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed in the total study population. Univariate factors with p-values < 0.200 entered the multivariate analysis, using stepwise backward elimination methods to select the factors for inclusion in the multivariable analysis
  2. LV left ventricular, EF ejection fraction, OR odds ratio, CI confidence interval, HTN hypertension, SGLT2i sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, EDV end-diastolic volume, PASP pulmonary artery systolic pressure
  3. aStandard doses of beta-blockers for HF were determined according to the 2016 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure [6]