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Table 1 Baseline characteristics

From: Different effects of SGLT2 inhibitors according to the presence and types of heart failure in type 2 diabetic patients

 Total study population (n = 304)Group 1 No HF, no SGLT2i (n = 76)Group 2 No HF, SGLT2i (+) (n = 78)p-value (groups 1 vs. 2)Group 3 HF (+), no SGLT2i (n = 76)Group 4 HF (+), SGLT2i (+) (n = 74)p-value (groups 3 vs. 4)
Age (years)66 (56–74)66 (58–72)65 (56–72)0.47067 (56–75)67 (54–75)0.950
Male sex (n, %)198 (65.1%)44 (57.9%)52 (66.7%)0.26150 (65.8%)52 (70.3%)0.676
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)132 (118–148)136 (119–148)134 (121–154)0.832126 (113–148)130 (116–143)0.924
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)76 (68–85)75 (70–81)78 (65–88)0.87678 (68–85)76 (68–84)0.800
Heart rate (per minute)79 (68–91)76 (66–87)75 (68–83)0.63883 (68–99)83 (71–97)0.635
NYHA functional class III/IV53 (17.4%)0 (0.0%)0 (0.0%)N/A26 (34.2%)27 (36.5%)0.771
Hypertension149 (49.9%)37 (48.7%)31 (39.7%)0.26443 (56.6%)38 (51.4%)0.631
Dyslipidemia101 (33.2%)25 (32.9%)23 (29.5%)0.64827 (35.5%)26 (35.1%)0.960
Coronary artery disease110 (36.2%)26 (34.2%)31 (39.7%)0.47727 (35.5%)26 (35.1%)0.828
Chronic kidney disease36 (11.8%)10 (13.2%)8 (10.3%)0.5759 (11.8%)9 (12.2%)0.952
Atrial fibrillation96 (31.6%)13 (17.1%)14 (17.9%)0.89136 (47.4%)33 (44.6%)0.858
Medications
 Use of SGLT2i
  Dapagliflozin69 (22.7%)0 (0.0%)39 (50.0%)N/A0 (0.0%)29 (39.2%)N/A
  Empagliflozin83 (27.3%)0 (0.0%)39 (50.0%)N/A0 (0.0%)45 (60.8%)N/A
Duration of SGLT2i use (months)10 (5–15)N/A10 (7–15)N/A
 Statin254 (83.6%)69 (90.8%)68 (87.2%)0.47558 (76.3%)59 (79.7%)0.614
 Metformin249 (81.9%)59 (77.6%)63 (80.8%)0.63161 (80.3%)66 (89.2%)0.174
 Sulfonylurea184 (60.5%)38 (50.0%)50 (64.1%)0.07745 (59.2%)51 (68.9%)0.216
 DPP-4 inhibitors210 (69.1%)47 (61.8%)56 (71.8%)0.18955 (72.4%)52 (70.3%)0.776
 ACE inhibitors107 (35.2%)20 (26.3%)26 (33.3%)0.34129 (38.2%)32 (43.2%)0.526
 ARB161 (53.0%)41 (53.9%)38 (48.7%)0.51642 (55.3%)40 (54.1%)0.882
 Beta-blockers255 (83.9%)58 (76.3%)61 (78.2%)0.78067 (88.2%)69 (93.2%)0.284
 MRA103 (33.9%)9 (11.8%)9 (11.5%)0.95340 (52.6%)45 (60.8%)0.312
 Diuretics179 (58.9%)23 (30.3%)31 (39.7%)0.21859 (77.6%)66 (89.2%)0.079
Baseline laboratory tests
 Hemoglobin (g/dL)13.8 (12.7–15.1)13.7 (12.8–15.0)14.1 (13.1–15.0)0.36813.7 (12.3–15.3)13.6 (12.1–15.3)0.624
 Serum creatinine (mg/dL)0.9 (0.8–1.1)0.9 (0.7–1.1)0.9 (0.8–1.1)0.8391.0 (0.8–1.2)1.0 (0.8–1.3)0.806
 Total cholesterol (mg/dL)144.5 (122.5–172.0)151.5 (127.0–174.0)142.5 (119.0–172.0)0.171136.0 (119.0–169.0)142.5 (120.0–170.0)0.930
 Fasting glucose (mg/dL)136.0 (117.0–159.0)138.0 (119.0–161.5)138.0 (116.0–175.0)0.427129.5 (113.5–149.5)132.0 (117.0–155.0)0.363
 HbA1c (%)7.1 (6.5–8.0)7.3 (6.6–7.8)7.5 (6.6–8.6)0.0956.8 (6.4–7.8)6.9 (6.4–7.7)0.905
 NT-proBNP (pg/mL)447.7 (106.9–2432.6) (n = 207)100.0 (54.8–199.2) (n = 30)77.3 (32.7–197.8) (n = 36)0.858925.6 (311.9–3386.1) (n = 70)1819.6 (547.3–5695.4) (n = 71)0.637
Echocardiographic parameters
 LV-EDV (mL)92.0 (69.0–128.5)76.0 (64.5–96.5)79.5 (65.0–97.0)0.430111.9 (82.5–148.5)128.5 (94.0–169.0)0.098
 LV-ESV (mL)41.0 (28.9–80.7)29.6 (23.5–42.8)32.0 (25.0–42.0)0.48669.5 (33.0–112.0)82.5 (41.0–125.0)0.115
 LV-EDD (mm)50.9 (46.5–80.0)48.0 (44.5–50.0)49.0 (45.0–52.0)0.17456.1 (49.5–62.0)57.4 (50.0–64.9)0.203
 LV-ESD (mm)35.7 (30.0–47.0)31.0 (28.4–35.5)32.0 (28.0–36.0)0.65844.0 (32.5–51.0)45.4 (37.0–54.0)0.181
 LV-EF (%)52.0 (35.6–61.1)60.4 (52.4–63.8)59.4 (49.3–63.6)0.62838.8 (28.0–55.9)36.1 (25.6–47.5)0.094
 LV-MI (g/m2)112.8 (91.0–134.7)99.6 (84.1–123.3)96.6 (82.7–114.7)0.613120.9 (101.3–146.5)126.3 (111.1–147.3)0.666
 LAVI (mL/m2)40.3 (31.0–56.5)31.8 (28.3–39.9)34.7 (29.5–44.8)0.08148.2 (36.2–68.1)53.5 (41.6–72.3)0.860
 PASP (mmHg)28.0 (24.4–38.6)26.2 (23.0–29.3)26.2 (22.6–30.0)0.80832.0 (26.2–41.0)36.4 (28.0–54.0)0.038
 E velocity (m/s)0.70 (0.58–0.87)0.66 (0.59–0.78)0.63 (0.57–0.78)0.7600.73 (0.58–0.87)0.79 (0.63–1.03)0.030
 Mitral annular e′ velocity (cm/s)5.7 (4.2–7.2)6.10 (4.80–7.40)6.00 (5.00–7.10)0.4035.7 (4.2–7.2)5.10 (3.70–6.50)0.167
 Mitral annular s’ velocity (cm/s)6.0 (4.7–7.5)6.7 (5.4–8.4)6.6 (5.5–7.8)0.6965.3 (4.2–6.7)5.0 (3.8–6.1)0.377
 Mitral E/e′ ratio12.6 (9.3–17.1)10.8 (8.9–14.1)10.6 (9.0–13.5)0.74213.2 (9.8–17.8)15.6 (11.9–24.3)0.026
 LV-GLS (%)12.5 (9.5–15.5)15.2 (12.5–16.9)14.6 (12.1–17.0)0.96210.9 (8.4–12.3)10.3 (7.3–12.5)0.532
Follow-up interval (months)13 (8–20)13 (8–21)12 (9–19)0.09111 (7–16)14 (8–21)0.183
  1. Data are expressed as median with interquartile range (Q1–Q3) or as number (percentage)
  2. HF heart failure, SGLT2i sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitor, NYHA New York Heart Association, DPP-4 dipeptidyl peptidase-4, ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, MRA mineralocorticoid antagonist, HbA1c hemoglobin A1c, LV left ventricular, EDV end-diastolic volume, ESV end-systolic volume, EDD end-diastolic dimension, ESD end-systolic dimension, EF ejection fraction, MI mass index, LAVI left atrial volume index, PASP pulmonary artery systolic pressure, GLS global longitudinal strain