Skip to main content

Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to ABO blood groups

From: Relationship between ABO blood groups and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes according to diabetic nephropathy status

  O A B AB p
n = 1333 (29.4%) n = 2012 (44.4%) n = 796 (17.6%) n = 390 (8.6%) value
Sex (female  %) 46.5 47.5 48.0 50.3 0.62
Age (years) 38.0 (29.2–47.5) 38.2 (29.2–47.8) 39.2 (29.1–48.4) 39.3 (29.0–48.5) 0.81
Duration of diabetes (years) 21.5 (11.3–30.8) 20.4 (11.4–30.3) 21.3 (12.0–30.7) 21.0 (11.2–32.7) 0.47
HbA1c (%) 8.4 ± 1.5 8.4 ± 1.5 8.4 ± 1.5 8.3 ± 1.4 0.46
Smoking history (%) 46.4 47.5 47.4 46.9 0.95
Body Mass Index (kg/m2) 25.1 ± 3.5 25.1 ± 3.8 25.0 ± 3.5 25.0 ± 3.9 0.81
Waist-to-hip ratio 0.87 ± 0.08 0.87 ± 0.09 0.87 ± 0.09 0.87 ± 0.08 0.71
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg) 134 ± 18 135 ± 19 134 ± 18 135. ± 20 0.44
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg) 80 ± 10 80 ± 10 80 ± 10 79 ± 10 0.74
Total cholesterol (mmol/l) 4.90 ± 0.99 4.95 ± 1.01 4.87 ± 0.93 4.95 ± 0.95 0.17
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l) 1.32 ± 0.38 1.33 ± 0.39 1.35 ± 0.40 1.36 ± 0.41 0.25
Triglycerides (mmol/l) 1.06 (0.78–1.51) 1.03 (0.78–1.52) 1.01 (0.77–1.45) 1.04 (0.75–1.40) 0.16
Hs-CRP (mg/l) 4.5 ± 9.4 4.6 ± 9.4 4.2 ± 8.5 4.7 ± 9.0 0.64
DN groups      0.42
Normoalbuminuria (n,  %) 862 (64.7) 1311 (65.2) 505 (63.4) 253 (64.9)  
Microalbuminuria (n,  %) 178 (13.4) 251 (12.5) 109 (13.7) 44 (11.3)  
Macroalbuminuria (n,  %) 199 (14.9) 272 (13.5) 124 (15.6) 55 (14.1)  
ESRD (n,  %) 94 (7.0) 178 (8.8) 58 (7.3) 38 (9.7)  
Laser treatment (%) 34.7 31.9 35.2 34.3 0.22
Lipid lowering therapy (%) 13.0 14.6 11.6 15.0 0.36
Blood Pressure lowering therapy (%) 38.8 39.3 39.0 40.0 0.98
ACE/ARB users (%) 30.3 31.0 30.7 30.5 0.98
FUT2 Secretor (%) 81.4 82.7 82.4 83.5 0.72
Antibiotic purchases per person year 0.62 (0.30–1.46) 0.63 (0.28–1.33) 0.59 (0.26–1.34) 0.60 (0.28–1.30) 0.90
IHD (n,  %) 82 (6.2) 132 (6.6) 49 (6.2) 30 (7.7) 0.50
Socioeconomic status
 Blue collar  worker (%) 56.9 58.0 60.7 57.0 0.48
 White collar  worker (%) 32.6 30.2 30.4 32.3
 Others (%) 3.6 4.3 2.8 3.2
 Not known (%) 6.9 7.5 6.1 7.6
 Alcohol consumption (g/week) 48.0 (24.0–84.0) 48.0 (24.0–84.0) 42.0 (24.0–84.0) 36.0 (24.0–84.0) 0.06
 Abstainers (%) 26.5 27.1 26.8 26.7 0.18
 Missing data (%) 9.3 9.8 9.8 6.2 0.76
  1. Data are given as mean ± SD or median and interquartile range
  2. HbA1c glycated hemoglobin, Hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, DN diabetic nephropathy, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, HDL high-density lipoprotein, FUT2 fucosyltransferase-2, IHD ischemic heart disease
  3. p value refers to ANOVA, Kruskal–Wallis test or χ2-test adjusted for age at baseline when applicable. Comparisons are made among ABO blood groups