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Table 4 Cox regression analysis on new-onset type2 DM according to years of exposure

From: Time-varying and dose-dependent effect of long-term statin use on risk of type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study

(N) Unadjusted Hazard Ratioa Adjusted Hazard Ratioa
HR 95% CI p-value HR 95% CI HR
Non-statin (5273) 1.000    1.000   
Atorvastatin (1071) 1.791 1.598 2.009 <  0.0001 1.942 1.661 2.269 1.942
 < 2 years (137) 1.027 0.846 1.248 0.7853 0.989 0.8 1.222 0.989
 2–5 years (127) 1.007 0.822 1.234 0.9448 1.005 0.791 1.277 1.005
 ≥ 5 years (807) 1.907 1.563 2.327 <  0.0001 1.83 1.487 2.252 1.83
Lovastatin (771) 1.847 1.624 2.101 <  0.0001 1.915 1.621 2.263 1.915
 < 2 years (103) 1.07 0.862 1.328 0.5382 1.005 0.793 1.275 1.005
 2–5 years (92) 1.113 0.885 1.401 0.3599 1.068 0.826 1.382 1.068
 ≥ 5 years (576) 1.942 1.551 2.431 <  0.0001 1.846 1.458 2.337 <  0.0.0001
Pravastatin (391) 1.662 1.39 1.986 <  0.0001 1.758 1.429 2.164 <  0.0001
 < 2 years (42) 0.914 0.677 1.234 0.5582 0.981 0.706 1.363 0.9093
 2–5 years (50) 1.256 0.946 1.666 0.1148 1.236 0.899 1.699 0.1911
 ≥ 5 years (299) 1.779 1.335 2.371 <  0.0001 1.633 1.211 2.203 0.0013
Rosuvastatin (243) 1.723 1.381 2.15 <  0.0001 1.932 1.511 2.471 < 0.0001
 < 2 years (32) 0.931 0.653 1.328 0.6927 0.826 0.547 1.247 0.3635
 2–5 years (30) 1.727 1.198 2.491 0.0034 1.712 1.133 2.586 0.0107
 ≥ 5 years (181) 1.578 1.053 2.365 0.0271 1.587 1.051 2.398 0.0282
Simvastatin (2711) 1.669 1.531 1.819 <  0.0001 1.794 1.567 2.055 < 0.0001
 < 2 years (310) 0.93 0.802 1.078 0.3341 0.912 0.776 1.071 0.2617
 2–5 years (290) 0.988 0.846 1.155 0.8804 0.979 0.824 1.163 0.8103
 ≥ 5 years (2111) 1.967 1.701 2.274 <  0.0001 1.916 1.647 2.228 < 0.0001
  1. aModel was adjusted for age, sex, income level, urbanization of residence, Charlson comorbidity index, comorbidities (hypertension, prediabetes, liver disease, renal disease, metabolic disorder, family history of diabetes, obesity, hypothyroidism), number of outpatient visits in the previous 3 years, number of hospitalizations in the previous 3 years, comedications (fibrates, niacin, corticosteroids, hypertension medications). *p < 0.001. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval