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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study population after propensity score matching

From: Time-varying and dose-dependent effect of long-term statin use on risk of type 2 diabetes: a retrospective cohort study

Variable Patients, No (%) p-value The standardized difference statisticsa
Statin group (N = 5273) Non-statin Group (N = 5273)
Sex    <  0.0001  
 Male 2288 (43.39) 2534 (48.06)   − 9.4
 Female 2985 (56.61) 2739 (51.94)   9.4
Age at entry    0.2309  
 40–44 544 (10.32) 551 (10.45)   − 0.4
 45–49 905 (17.16) 920 (17.45)   − 0.8
 50–54 1027 (19.48) 1006 (19.08)   1.0
 55–59 1003 (19.02) 971 (18.41)   1.6
 60–64 861 (16.33) 749 (14.20)   5.9
 65–69 570 (10.81) 642 (12.18)   − 4.3
 70–74 363 (6.88) 434 (8.23)   − 5.1
Insurance premium level    0.3051  
 1 669 (12.69) 695 (13.18)   − 1.5
 2 743 (14.09) 724 (13.73)   1.0
 3 808 (15.32) 867 (16.44)   − 3.1
 4 1179 (22.36) 1200 (22.76)   − 1.0
 5 782 (14.83) 774 (14.68)   0.4
 6 1092 (20.71) 1013 (19.21)   3.7
Urbanization of residence    0.0004  
 Urban 2681 (50.84) 2499 (47.39)   6.9
 Rural 2592 (49.16) 2774 (52.61)   − 6.9
Charlson comorbidity index score    0.1937  
 0 3831 (72.65) 3792 (71.91)   1.7
 1 545 (10.34) 588 (11.15)   − 2.6
 2 762 (14.45) 732 (13.88)   1.6
 ≥ 3 135 (2.56) 161 (3.05)   − 3.0
Comorbidity     
 Hypertension 3171 (60.14) 2154 (40.85) <  0.0001 39.3
 Prediabetes 217 (4.12) 248 (4.70) 0.1415 − 2.9
 Liver disease 2561 (48.57) 3262 (61.86) <  0.0001 − 27.0
 Metabolic disorders 315 (5.97) 413 (7.83) 0.0002 − 7.3
 Renal disease 648 (12.29) 782 (14.83) 0.0001 − 7.4
 Hypothyroidism 261 (4.95) 361 (6.85) <  0.0001 − 8.1
 Family history of diabetes 10 (0.19) 9 (0.17) 0.8184 0.4
 Morbid obesity 47 (0.89) 31 (0.59) 0.0690 3.5
Number of outpatient visits in the previous 3 years, mean (SD) 30.65 (21.92) 27.95 (20.33) <  0.0001 7.1
Number of hospitalizations in the previous 3 years, mean (SD) 0.2712 (0.94) 0.3006 (0.91) 0.1038 − 2.4
Comedication
 Fibrates 208 (3.94) 117 (2.22) <  0.0001 10
 Niacin 26 (0.49) 28 (0.53) 0.7849 − 0.5
 Corticosteroids 189 (3.58) 204 (3.87) 0.4406 − 1.5
Hypertension medications
 Beta-blocker 1304 (24.73) 882 (16.73) <  0.0001 19.8
 ACE inhibitor 533 (10.11) 295 (5.59) <  0.0001 16.8
 ARB 470 (8.91) 237 (4.49) <  0.0001 17.7
 CCB 1249 (23.69) 791 (15.00) <  0.0001 22.1
 Thiazide 1102 (20.90) 729 (13.83) <  0.0001 18.8
  1. ARB angiotensin receptor blocker, CCB calcium channel blocker
  2. aSmall (< 10%) absolute values of the standardized difference statistics support the assumption of balance between treatment groups