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Table 1 Clinical, angiographic and procedural characteristics of patients stratified according to T2DM and coronary collateral flow

From: Impact of coronary collateralization on long-term clinical outcomes in type 2 diabetic patients after successful recanalization of chronic total occlusion

VariableAll patients (n = 533)Non-diabetes (n = 335) (63%)Diabetes (n = 198) (37%)p value (non-diabetes vs diabetes)
Rentrop coronary collateral classificationAllGood CC (n = 237) (71%)Poor CC (n = 98) (29%)p valueAllGood CC (n = 118) (60%)Poor CC (n = 80) (40%)p value0.008
Age (years)62.61 ± 10.9962.37 ± 11.3561.66 ± 11.1064.08 ± 11.810.07563.02 ± 10.3663.26 ± 10.1362.65 ± 10.750.6840.511
Men427 (80%)281 (84%)202 (85%)79 (81%)0.296146 (74%)87 (74%)59 (74%)0.9970.005
CAD risk factors
Hypertension374 (70%)222 (66%)149 (63%)73 (74%)0.041152 (77%)96 (81%)56 (70%)0.0630.01
Diabetes
 Current smoking195 (37%)119 (36%)87 (37%)32 (33%)0.4876 (38%)43 (36%)33 (41%)0.4950.508
 Hypercholesterolemia69 (13%)37 (11%)25 (11%)12 (12%)0.65232 (16%)18 (15%)14 (18%)0.6740.089
 Body mass index (kg/m2)25.56 ± 3.2725.37 ± 3.1225.35 ± 3.0325.42 ± 3.340.86125.87 ± 3.4925.79 ± 3.2625.98 ± 3.840.730.09
 Glomerular filtration rate (ml/min)84.61 ± 19.2885.12 ± 17.4285.97 ± 17.2483.05 ± 17.780.16383.76 ± 22.0884.29 ± 21.2282.98 ± 23.410.6840.432
 LVEF (%),at baseline52.39 ± 7.3853.00 ± 7.2753.52 ± 6.8151.74 ± 8.180.04251.36 ± 7.4651.70 ± 7.4850.85 ± 7.440.4310.013
 Severity of coronary artery disease    0.967   0.7510.006
 1111 (21%)82 (24%)58 (24%)24 (24%) 29 (15%)19 (16%)10 (12%)  
 2214 (40%)137 (41%)96 (41%)41 (42%) 77 (39%)46 (39%)31 (39%)  
 3208 (39%)116 (35%)83 (35%)33 (34%) 92 (46%)53 (45%)39 (49%)  
 Number of CTO lesions recanalized560350250100 21012387  
 Location of CTO lesion    0.001   < 0.0010.864
 Left anterior descending189 (34%)121 (35%)72 (29%)49 (49%) 68 (32%)31 (25%)37 (42%)  
 Left circumflex artery82 (15%)51 (14%)37 (14%)14 (14%) 31 (15%)13 (11%)18 (21%)  
 Right coronary artery289 (51%)178 (51%)141 (57%)37 (37%) 111 (53%)79 (64%)32 (37%)  
 Number of stents for CTO vessel2.01 ± 0.932.03 ± 0.932.08 ± 0.961.90 ± 0.850.1091.99 ± 0.922.08 ± 0.901.85 ± 0.930.0730.621
 Complete revascularization (%)433 (81%)268 (80%)187 (79%)81 (83%)0.435165 (83%)98 (83%)67 (84%)0.8970.341
Medications
 Oral antiplatelet agent533 (100%)335 (100%)237 (100%)98 (100%)198 (100%)118 (100%)80 (100%)
 Statin486 (91%)301 (90%)217 (92%)84 (86%)0.107185 (93%)107 (91%)78 (97%)0.0570.159
 β-blocker439 (82%)276 (82%)192 (81%)84 (86%)0.304163 (82%)93 (79%)70 (87%)0.1160.985
 ACEI or ARB320 (60%)206 (61%)154 (65%)52 (53%)0.041114 (58%)66 (56%)48 (60%)0.5700.372
 Insulin25 (5%)00025 (13%)15 (13%)10 (12%)0.965
 Oral antidiabetic drug173 (32%)000173 (87%)103 (87%)70 (88%)0.965
  1. T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, CC coronary collateralization, CAD coronary artery disease, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, CTO chronic total occlusion, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker