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Table 2 Results of Cox survival analyses for the excess risks associated with 12-month and 24-month s visit-to-visit blood pressure variability parameters for the occurrence of future macrovascular complications and all-cause mortality

From: Prognostic importance of visit-to-visit blood pressure variability for micro- and macrovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: The Rio de Janeiro Type 2 Diabetes Cohort Study

Outcomes

BP variability parameter

12-Month BP variability

24-Month BP variability

Model 1 HR (95% CI)

Model 2 HR (95% CI)

Model 3 HR (95% CI)

Model 1 HR (95% CI)

Model 2 HR (95% CI)

Model 3 HR (95% CI)

Total CV events (n = 162)

SBP-SD

1.33 (1.15–1.53)*

1.13 (0.97–1.30)

1.10 (0.95–1.28)

1.37 (1.18–1.58)*

1.17 (0.99–138)

1.12 (0.94-1.33)

SBP-VC

1.26 (1.10–1.46)

1.10 (0.95–1.26)

1.10 (0.95–1.27)

1.26 (1.10–1.44)

1.12 (0.95–1.31)

1.11 (0.95–1.31)

DBP-SD

1.15 (1.02–1.31)

1.06 (0.94–1.20)

1.04 (0.92–1.19)

1.22 (1.07–1.40)

1.11 (0.97–1.27)

1.08 (0.94–1.23)

DBP-VC

1.12 (0.98–1.27)

1.06 (0.93–1.20)

1.05 (0.92–1.20)

1.22 (1.07–1.40)

1.11 (0.97–1.27)

1.10 (0.96–1.13)

Major CV events (n = 132)

SBP-SD

1.39 (1.19–1.63)*

1.21 (1.03–1.43)

1.18 (1.00–1.40)

1.45 (1.23–1.70)*

1.30 (1.09–1.56)

1.25 (1.03–1.51)

SBP-VC

1.31 (1.12–1.53)

1.16 (0.99–1.36)

1.17 (0.99–1.37)

1.32 (1.14–1.53)*

1.22 (1.03–1.44)

1.22 (1.03–1.45)

DBP-SD

1.17 (1.03–1.34)

1.09 (0.96–1.24)

1.07 (0.93–1.22)

1.24 (1.08–1.43)

1.15 (1.00–1.33)

1.12 (0.97–1.29)

DBP-VC

1.13 (0.98–1.29)

1.08 (0.94–1.24)

1.07 (0.93–1.23)

1.25 (1.09–1.44)

1.16 (1.00–1.34)

1.15 (1.00–1.33)

CV mortality (n = 95)

SBP-SD

1.24 (1.04–1.49)

1.06 (0.88–1.22)

1.02 (0.84–1.24)

1.29 (1.06–1.55)

1.08 (0.87–1.33)

1.02 (0.82–1.28)

SBP-VC

1.13 (0.95–1.35)

1.02 (0.85–1.22)

1.00 (0.84–1.21)

1.15 (0.96–1.39)

1.02 (0.83–1.26)

1.02 (0.83–1.25)

DBP-SD

1.21 (1.03–1.41)

1.11 (0.95–1.30)

1.09 (0.92–1.28)

1.24 (1.04–1.48)

1.12 (0.94–1.33)

1.08 (0.90–1.29)

DBP-VC

1.14 (0.96–1.34)

1.09 (0.92–1.29)

1.09 (0.92–1.29)

1.20 (1.06–1.35)

1.11 (0.93–1.32)

1.12 (0.93–1.31)

All–cause mortality (n = 212)

SBP-SD

1.21 (1.07–1.37)

1.06 (0.93–1.20)

1.05 (0.91–1.20)

1.29 (1.13–1.45)*

1.11 (0.96–1.28)

1.07 (0.92–1.25)

SBP-VC

1.13 (1.00–1.28)

1.03 (0.91–1.17)

1.03 (0.91–1.17)

1.17 (1.04–1.32)

1.06 (0.93–1.22)

1.06 (0.92–1.22)

DBP-SD

1.16 (1.03–1.30)

1.11 (0.98–1.24)

1.10 (0.98–1.24)

1.24 (1.11–1.40)*

1.16 (1.02–1.31)

1.14 (0.99–1.29)

DBP-VC

1.13 (1.00–1.27)

1.12 (0.99–1.26)

1.11 (0.99–1.26)

1.20 (1.06–1.35)

1.12 (0.99–1.27)

1.12 (0.99–1.27)

  1. Model 1 is adjusted for age and sex, and number of BP measurements
  2. Model 2 is further adjusted for diabetes duration, BMI, smoking status, physical inactivity, arterial hypertension, number of anti-hypertensive drugs in use, presence of micro- and macrovascular complications at baseline, mean HbA1C, serum mean HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, and use of insulin, statins and aspirin
  3. Model 3 is further adjusted for mean SBP and DBP
  4. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; CV, cardiovascular; SBP-SD, systolic blood pressure standard deviation, SBP-VC, systolic blood pressure variation coefficient; DBP-SD, diastolic blood pressure standard deviation, DBP-VC, diastolic blood pressure variation coefficient
  5. Values are hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, estimated for increases of 1-SD in each BP variability parameter.*p < 0.001; p < 0.01; p < 0.05