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Table 2 Results of Cox survival analyses for the excess risks associated with 12-month and 24-month s visit-to-visit blood pressure variability parameters for the occurrence of future macrovascular complications and all-cause mortality

From: Prognostic importance of visit-to-visit blood pressure variability for micro- and macrovascular outcomes in patients with type 2 diabetes: The Rio de Janeiro Type 2 Diabetes Cohort Study

OutcomesBP variability parameter12-Month BP variability24-Month BP variability
Model 1 HR (95% CI)Model 2 HR (95% CI)Model 3 HR (95% CI)Model 1 HR (95% CI)Model 2 HR (95% CI)Model 3 HR (95% CI)
Total CV events (n = 162)SBP-SD1.33 (1.15–1.53)*1.13 (0.97–1.30)1.10 (0.95–1.28)1.37 (1.18–1.58)*1.17 (0.99–138)1.12 (0.94-1.33)
SBP-VC1.26 (1.10–1.46)1.10 (0.95–1.26)1.10 (0.95–1.27)1.26 (1.10–1.44)1.12 (0.95–1.31)1.11 (0.95–1.31)
DBP-SD1.15 (1.02–1.31)1.06 (0.94–1.20)1.04 (0.92–1.19)1.22 (1.07–1.40)1.11 (0.97–1.27)1.08 (0.94–1.23)
DBP-VC1.12 (0.98–1.27)1.06 (0.93–1.20)1.05 (0.92–1.20)1.22 (1.07–1.40)1.11 (0.97–1.27)1.10 (0.96–1.13)
Major CV events (n = 132)SBP-SD1.39 (1.19–1.63)*1.21 (1.03–1.43)1.18 (1.00–1.40)1.45 (1.23–1.70)*1.30 (1.09–1.56)1.25 (1.03–1.51)
SBP-VC1.31 (1.12–1.53)1.16 (0.99–1.36)1.17 (0.99–1.37)1.32 (1.14–1.53)*1.22 (1.03–1.44)1.22 (1.03–1.45)
DBP-SD1.17 (1.03–1.34)1.09 (0.96–1.24)1.07 (0.93–1.22)1.24 (1.08–1.43)1.15 (1.00–1.33)1.12 (0.97–1.29)
DBP-VC1.13 (0.98–1.29)1.08 (0.94–1.24)1.07 (0.93–1.23)1.25 (1.09–1.44)1.16 (1.00–1.34)1.15 (1.00–1.33)
CV mortality (n = 95)SBP-SD1.24 (1.04–1.49)1.06 (0.88–1.22)1.02 (0.84–1.24)1.29 (1.06–1.55)1.08 (0.87–1.33)1.02 (0.82–1.28)
SBP-VC1.13 (0.95–1.35)1.02 (0.85–1.22)1.00 (0.84–1.21)1.15 (0.96–1.39)1.02 (0.83–1.26)1.02 (0.83–1.25)
DBP-SD1.21 (1.03–1.41)1.11 (0.95–1.30)1.09 (0.92–1.28)1.24 (1.04–1.48)1.12 (0.94–1.33)1.08 (0.90–1.29)
DBP-VC1.14 (0.96–1.34)1.09 (0.92–1.29)1.09 (0.92–1.29)1.20 (1.06–1.35)1.11 (0.93–1.32)1.12 (0.93–1.31)
All–cause mortality (n = 212)SBP-SD1.21 (1.07–1.37)1.06 (0.93–1.20)1.05 (0.91–1.20)1.29 (1.13–1.45)*1.11 (0.96–1.28)1.07 (0.92–1.25)
SBP-VC1.13 (1.00–1.28)1.03 (0.91–1.17)1.03 (0.91–1.17)1.17 (1.04–1.32)1.06 (0.93–1.22)1.06 (0.92–1.22)
DBP-SD1.16 (1.03–1.30)1.11 (0.98–1.24)1.10 (0.98–1.24)1.24 (1.11–1.40)*1.16 (1.02–1.31)1.14 (0.99–1.29)
DBP-VC1.13 (1.00–1.27)1.12 (0.99–1.26)1.11 (0.99–1.26)1.20 (1.06–1.35)1.12 (0.99–1.27)1.12 (0.99–1.27)
  1. Model 1 is adjusted for age and sex, and number of BP measurements
  2. Model 2 is further adjusted for diabetes duration, BMI, smoking status, physical inactivity, arterial hypertension, number of anti-hypertensive drugs in use, presence of micro- and macrovascular complications at baseline, mean HbA1C, serum mean HDL- and LDL-cholesterol, and use of insulin, statins and aspirin
  3. Model 3 is further adjusted for mean SBP and DBP
  4. HR, hazard ratio; CI, confidence interval; CV, cardiovascular; SBP-SD, systolic blood pressure standard deviation, SBP-VC, systolic blood pressure variation coefficient; DBP-SD, diastolic blood pressure standard deviation, DBP-VC, diastolic blood pressure variation coefficient
  5. Values are hazard ratios and 95% confidence intervals, estimated for increases of 1-SD in each BP variability parameter.*p < 0.001; p < 0.01; p < 0.05