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Table 2 Independent predictors of in-hospital and overall mortality on multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model

From: Impact of diabetes mellitus on mortality in patients with acute heart failure: a prospective cohort study

VariablesAdjusted HRaP value
In-hospital mortality
 DM0.81 (0.61–1.07)0.137
 Age (years)1.03 (1.02–1.04)< 0.001
 Ischemic cause (vs non-ischemic cause)1.41 (1.07–1.86)0.016
 Parenteral inotropics usage5.14 (3.43–7.68)< 0.001
 Serum creatinine ≥ 2.0 (vs < 2.0 mg/dL)1.54 (1.15–2.07)0.015
Overall mortality
 DM1.11 (1.03–1.22)0.013
 Age (years)1.04 (1.04–1.05)< 0.001
 Sex (male)1.26 (1.14–1.38)< 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Underweight vs. Normal1.66 (1.47–1.88)< 0.001
 Overweight or obese vs. Normal0.80 (0.73–0.89)< 0.001
Ischemic cause (vs non-ischemic cause)1.17 (1.07–1.27)< 0.001
Prior admission history due to HF1.51 (1.39–1.64)< 0.001
Parenteral inotropics usage1.41 (1.30–1.55)< 0.001
Serum creatinine ≥ 2.0 (vs < 2.0 mg/dL)1.63 (1.50–1.83)< 0.001
Higher BNP (≥ 500), or NT-proBNP (≥ 1000) during index hospitalization1.32 (1.22–1.49)< 0.001
NYHA class III–IV on admission1.35 (1.22–1.49)< 0.001
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, body mass index, etiology of heart failure (ischemic vs. non-ischemic), prior admission history due to HF, parenteral inotropics usage, creatinine concentration (< 2.0 vs. ≥ 2.0 mg/dL), elevated BNP (≥ 500) or NT-proBNP (≥ 1000), NYHA class (III-IV or I-II) on admission, and smoking status (current or ex-smoker vs. never-smoker)