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Table 2 Independent predictors of in-hospital and overall mortality on multivariable Cox proportional hazard regression model

From: Impact of diabetes mellitus on mortality in patients with acute heart failure: a prospective cohort study

Variables Adjusted HRa P value
In-hospital mortality
 DM 0.81 (0.61–1.07) 0.137
 Age (years) 1.03 (1.02–1.04) < 0.001
 Ischemic cause (vs non-ischemic cause) 1.41 (1.07–1.86) 0.016
 Parenteral inotropics usage 5.14 (3.43–7.68) < 0.001
 Serum creatinine ≥ 2.0 (vs < 2.0 mg/dL) 1.54 (1.15–2.07) 0.015
Overall mortality
 DM 1.11 (1.03–1.22) 0.013
 Age (years) 1.04 (1.04–1.05) < 0.001
 Sex (male) 1.26 (1.14–1.38) < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)
 Underweight vs. Normal 1.66 (1.47–1.88) < 0.001
 Overweight or obese vs. Normal 0.80 (0.73–0.89) < 0.001
Ischemic cause (vs non-ischemic cause) 1.17 (1.07–1.27) < 0.001
Prior admission history due to HF 1.51 (1.39–1.64) < 0.001
Parenteral inotropics usage 1.41 (1.30–1.55) < 0.001
Serum creatinine ≥ 2.0 (vs < 2.0 mg/dL) 1.63 (1.50–1.83) < 0.001
Higher BNP (≥ 500), or NT-proBNP (≥ 1000) during index hospitalization 1.32 (1.22–1.49) < 0.001
NYHA class III–IV on admission 1.35 (1.22–1.49) < 0.001
  1. aAdjusted for age, sex, body mass index, etiology of heart failure (ischemic vs. non-ischemic), prior admission history due to HF, parenteral inotropics usage, creatinine concentration (< 2.0 vs. ≥ 2.0 mg/dL), elevated BNP (≥ 500) or NT-proBNP (≥ 1000), NYHA class (III-IV or I-II) on admission, and smoking status (current or ex-smoker vs. never-smoker)