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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics according to diabetes mellitus (DM)

From: Impact of diabetes mellitus on mortality in patients with acute heart failure: a prospective cohort study

Variables All patients (N = 5394) Non-DM (N = 3073) DM (N = 2321) P-value
Age 68.5 ± 14.5 67.6 ± 15.9 69.6 ± 12.3 < 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2) 23.0 ± 3.9 23.0 ± 3.9 23.7 ± 3.8 < 0.001
Male, N (%) 2872 (53.2) 1596 (51.9) 1277 (55.0) 0.023
Current smoker, N (%) 961 (17.8) 546 (17.8) 415 (17.9) 0.086
Risk factors, N (%)
 Hypertension 3183 (59.0) 1554 (50.6) 1629 (70.2) < 0.001
 Ischemic heart disease 1501 (27.8) 636 (20.7) 865 (37.2) < 0.001
 Atrial fibrillation 1523 (28.2) 921 (30.0) 602 (25.9) 0.001
 Chronic lung disease 608 (11.3) 350 (11.4) 258 (11.1) 0.492
 Chronic kidney disease 756 (14.0) 277 (9.0) 479 (20.6) < 0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease 807 (15.0) 405 (13.2) 402 (17.3) < 0.001
 Previous heart failure 2539 (47.1) 1380 (44.9) 1159 (49.9) < 0.001
Physical and laboratory findings
 SBP, mmHg 131.4 ± 30.1 130.4 ± 29.4 132.8 ± 30.9 0.003
 DBP, mmHg 78.7 ± 18.7 79.2 ± 18.8 78.1 ± 18.6 0.028
 Heart rate, beats/min 92.8 ± 25.9 92.5 ± 26.4 93.1 ± 25.2 0.379
 Glucose, mg/dL 155.3 ± 76.7 129.6 ± 47.8 189.1 ± 94.1 < 0.001
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL 151.8 ± 43.2 153.9 ± 42.2 149.2 ± 44.4 < 0.001
 BNP ≥ 500 pg/mL or NT-proBNP ≥ 1000 pg/mL 4047 (75.0) 2267 (73.8) 1780 (76.7) 0.014
 CRP, mg/dL 2.4 ± 4.3 2.1 ± 3.5 2.9 ± 5.0 < 0.001
 hsCRP, mg/dL 2.3 ± 4.2 2.0 ± 3.8 2.6 ± 4.6 < 0.001
 Sodium, mmol/L 137.5 ± 4.8 138.0 ± 4.6 136.8 ± 5.0 < 0.001
 Potassium, mmol/L 4.4 ± 0.7 4.3 ± 0.6 4.5 ± 0.8 < 0.001
 BUN, mg/dL 26.1 ± 16.3 23.7 ± 14.3 29.2 ± 18.3 < 0.001
 Creatinine, mg/dL 1.5 ± 1.5 1.3 ± 1.3 1.7 ± 1.6 < 0.001
 NYHA class III-IV, N (%) 4582 (84.9) 2558 (83.2) 2024 (87.2) < 0.001
 Acute pulmonary edema on chest X-ray, N (%) 1039 (19.3) 502 (16.3) 537 (23.1) < 0.001
Echocardiographic findings
 LVEDD, mm 57.4 ± 10.1 57.5 ± 10.6 57.4 ± 9.3 0.863
 LVESD, mm 45.2 ± 12.3 45.1 ± 12.8 45.4 ± 11.7 0.302
 LVEF (%) 37.8 ± 15.6 38.5 ± 15.9 36.7 ± 15.0 < 0.001
 LA volume index, mL/m2 63.8 ± 42.1 66.7 ± 41.9 59.6 ± 42.0 < 0.001
 E′, cm/s 5.0 ± 2.3 5.2 ± 2.1 4.8 ± 2.5 < 0.001
 S′, cm/s 5.1 ± 2.0 5.1 ± 2.1 5.0 ± 1.9 0.026
 E/E′ 21.2 ± 11.5 20.1 ± 10.8 22.7 ± 12.2 < 0.001
 RVSP 43.9 ± 15.1 43.2 ± 14.9 44.9 ± 15.4 < 0.001
Management, N (%)
 Parenteral diuretics 4062 (75.3) 2222 (72.3) 1840 (79.3) < 0.001
 Parenteral inotropics 1672 (31.0) 760 (24.7) 912 (39.3) < 0.001
 Parenteral vasodilators 2231 (41.4) 1105 (36.0) 1126 (48.5) < 0.001
 ACEIs/ARBs at admission 3383 (62.7) 1977 (64.3) 1406 (60.6) 0.001
 ACEIs/ARBs at discharge 3601 (66.8) 2117 (68.9) 1484 (63.9) < 0.001
 Beta-blockers at admission 2054 (38.1) 1183 (38.5) 871 (37.5) 0.001
 Beta-blockers at discharge 2725 (50.5) 1533 (49.9) 1192 (51.4) 0.285
 AAs at admission 2206 (40.9) 1379 (44.9) 827 (35.6) < 0.001
 AAs at discharge 2443 (45.3) 1472 (47.9) 971 (41.8) < 0.001
 Warfarin at discharge 1531 (28.4) 965 (31.4) 566 (24.4) < 0.001
 Heart transplantation 69 (1.3) 13 (0.4) 56 (2.4) < 0.001
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation, or n (%)
  2. DM diabetes mellitus, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BNP brain natriuretic peptides, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptides, hsCRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, CRP C-reactive protein, BUN blood urea nitrogen, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, LVEDV left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LA left atrium, RVSP right ventricular systolic pressure, ACEIs angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, AAs aldosterone antagonists