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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics according to diabetes mellitus (DM)

From: Impact of diabetes mellitus on mortality in patients with acute heart failure: a prospective cohort study

VariablesAll patients (N = 5394)Non-DM (N = 3073)DM (N = 2321)P-value
Age68.5 ± 14.567.6 ± 15.969.6 ± 12.3< 0.001
Body mass index (kg/m2)23.0 ± 3.923.0 ± 3.923.7 ± 3.8< 0.001
Male, N (%)2872 (53.2)1596 (51.9)1277 (55.0)0.023
Current smoker, N (%)961 (17.8)546 (17.8)415 (17.9)0.086
Risk factors, N (%)
 Hypertension3183 (59.0)1554 (50.6)1629 (70.2)< 0.001
 Ischemic heart disease1501 (27.8)636 (20.7)865 (37.2)< 0.001
 Atrial fibrillation1523 (28.2)921 (30.0)602 (25.9)0.001
 Chronic lung disease608 (11.3)350 (11.4)258 (11.1)0.492
 Chronic kidney disease756 (14.0)277 (9.0)479 (20.6)< 0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease807 (15.0)405 (13.2)402 (17.3)< 0.001
 Previous heart failure2539 (47.1)1380 (44.9)1159 (49.9)< 0.001
Physical and laboratory findings
 SBP, mmHg131.4 ± 30.1130.4 ± 29.4132.8 ± 30.90.003
 DBP, mmHg78.7 ± 18.779.2 ± 18.878.1 ± 18.60.028
 Heart rate, beats/min92.8 ± 25.992.5 ± 26.493.1 ± 25.20.379
 Glucose, mg/dL155.3 ± 76.7129.6 ± 47.8189.1 ± 94.1< 0.001
 Total cholesterol, mg/dL151.8 ± 43.2153.9 ± 42.2149.2 ± 44.4< 0.001
 BNP ≥ 500 pg/mL or NT-proBNP ≥ 1000 pg/mL4047 (75.0)2267 (73.8)1780 (76.7)0.014
 CRP, mg/dL2.4 ± 4.32.1 ± 3.52.9 ± 5.0< 0.001
 hsCRP, mg/dL2.3 ± 4.22.0 ± 3.82.6 ± 4.6< 0.001
 Sodium, mmol/L137.5 ± 4.8138.0 ± 4.6136.8 ± 5.0< 0.001
 Potassium, mmol/L4.4 ± 0.74.3 ± 0.64.5 ± 0.8< 0.001
 BUN, mg/dL26.1 ± 16.323.7 ± 14.329.2 ± 18.3< 0.001
 Creatinine, mg/dL1.5 ± 1.51.3 ± 1.31.7 ± 1.6< 0.001
 NYHA class III-IV, N (%)4582 (84.9)2558 (83.2)2024 (87.2)< 0.001
 Acute pulmonary edema on chest X-ray, N (%)1039 (19.3)502 (16.3)537 (23.1)< 0.001
Echocardiographic findings
 LVEDD, mm57.4 ± 10.157.5 ± 10.657.4 ± 9.30.863
 LVESD, mm45.2 ± 12.345.1 ± 12.845.4 ± 11.70.302
 LVEF (%)37.8 ± 15.638.5 ± 15.936.7 ± 15.0< 0.001
 LA volume index, mL/m263.8 ± 42.166.7 ± 41.959.6 ± 42.0< 0.001
 E′, cm/s5.0 ± 2.35.2 ± 2.14.8 ± 2.5< 0.001
 S′, cm/s5.1 ± 2.05.1 ± 2.15.0 ± 1.90.026
 E/E′21.2 ± 11.520.1 ± 10.822.7 ± 12.2< 0.001
 RVSP43.9 ± 15.143.2 ± 14.944.9 ± 15.4< 0.001
Management, N (%)
 Parenteral diuretics4062 (75.3)2222 (72.3)1840 (79.3)< 0.001
 Parenteral inotropics1672 (31.0)760 (24.7)912 (39.3)< 0.001
 Parenteral vasodilators2231 (41.4)1105 (36.0)1126 (48.5)< 0.001
 ACEIs/ARBs at admission3383 (62.7)1977 (64.3)1406 (60.6)0.001
 ACEIs/ARBs at discharge3601 (66.8)2117 (68.9)1484 (63.9)< 0.001
 Beta-blockers at admission2054 (38.1)1183 (38.5)871 (37.5)0.001
 Beta-blockers at discharge2725 (50.5)1533 (49.9)1192 (51.4)0.285
 AAs at admission2206 (40.9)1379 (44.9)827 (35.6)< 0.001
 AAs at discharge2443 (45.3)1472 (47.9)971 (41.8)< 0.001
 Warfarin at discharge1531 (28.4)965 (31.4)566 (24.4)< 0.001
 Heart transplantation69 (1.3)13 (0.4)56 (2.4)< 0.001
  1. Values are presented as mean ± standard deviation, or n (%)
  2. DM diabetes mellitus, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, BNP brain natriuretic peptides, NT-proBNP N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptides, hsCRP high sensitivity C-reactive protein, CRP C-reactive protein, BUN blood urea nitrogen, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, LVEDV left ventricular end-diastolic volume, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LA left atrium, RVSP right ventricular systolic pressure, ACEIs angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, AAs aldosterone antagonists