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Table 1 Summary of treatments and corresponding key trials

From: Reappraisal on pharmacological and mechanical treatments of heart failure

Treatments Key trials
Pharmacotherapy
 Tolvaptan TACTICS-HF [8], AQUAMARINE [9, 10], Shirakabe et al. [11], EVEREST [12], SECRET, QUEST, METEOR [13]
 Ivabradine SHIFT [14, 15], INTENSIFY, ETHIC-AHF, Bagriy et al. [17], CARVIVA HF [18]
 Sacubitril/valsartan PARADIGM-HF [19,20,21,22,23], PIONEER-HF [24, 25], EVALUATE-HF [26], TRANSITION [27, 28], PARAMOUNT [29, 30], PARAGON-HF [31]
 Nebivolol SENIORS [33,34,35,36,37], Sessa et al. [38], Brehm et al. [39], ELANDD [40], CARNEBI [41]
 Levosimendan LIDO [42], SURVIVE [43], REVIVE [44], LevoRep [45], Zhang et al. [46], LION-HEART [47], LEAF [48], Jia et al. [49], LAICA [50], LeoDOR [51]
 MRA Eplerenone: EPHESUS [75], EMPHASIS-HF [52,53,54,55,56,57,58,59], J-EMPHASIS-HF [60], EPHESUS [61, 62], EARLIER [76]
Finerenone: ARTS-HF [64], ARTS-HF Japan [65]
Spironolactone: TOPCAT [66,67,68,69, 201], Aldo-DHF [70, 71], Upadhya et al. [72], ATHENA-HF [74]
Device-based therapy
 ICD SCD-HeFT [77], DANISH [78].
 CRT RAFT [84], MADIT-CRT [85], REVERSE [86], BLOCK-HF [87]
 CCM FIX-HF-5 [88, 89, 91], Borggrefe et al. [90].
 VNS NECTAR-HF [92, 93], ANTHEM-HF [94, 95], INOVATE-HF [96]
 LVAD ROADMAP [99], INTERMACS [100].
 BAT HOPE4HF [101], Zile et al. [102], Halbach et al. [103], Raffaella et al. [104]
Comorbidities
 T2DM SGLT-2i: Empagliflozin EMPA-REG OUTCOME [112, 114, 122], EMPRISE [124]; Dapagliflozin: DECLARE-TIMI 58 [117, 125,126,127], Soga et al. [128]; DAPA-HF [118, 119]; Canagliflozin: CANVAS [120, 131, 132], CREDENCE [129, 130].
GLP-1: Liraglutide: LEADER [141], LIVE [142], and FIGHT [143]; Semaglutide: SUSTAIN-6 [144]
DPP4i: Sitagliptin: TECOS [146, 147]; Saxagliptin: SAVOR-TIMI 53 [148]; Vildagliptin: VIVIDD [149]; Linagliptin: CARMELINA [150]; Omarigliptin: Gantz et al. [151]
 AF ENGAGE AF-TIMI 48 [154], HF-ACTION [155], PARADIGM-HF/ATMOSPHERE [156], TOPCAT [157], ARISTOTLE [158], AATAC [159], CASTLE-AF [160], GENETIC-AF [163]
 MR MITRA-FR [165, 166], COAPT [167]
 Hyperkalemia Patiromer: PEARL-HF [170], AMETHYST-DN [171], Patiromer-204 [172]
Lokelma: Stephen et al. [173], DIALIZE [174], ZS-005 [175]
 CSA SERVE-HF [177], Ponikowski et al. [178], Pilot [179], Zhang et al. [180]