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Table 1 Characteristics of included studies

From: The relationship between carotid disease and retinopathy in diabetes: a systematic review

First author nameStudy nameYear publishedYear(s) data collectedCountryStudy designSample SizeDiabetes typeAge (years)Females (%)Diabetes duration (years)
Cardoso [23]Rio de Janeiro Type 2 Diabetes Cohort Study2019Baseline: 2004–2008 follow up: 2017BrazilProspective cohort study478260 ± 9.164.08 [3–15]
Hjelmgren [32]Western Region initiative to Gather Information on Atherosclerosis (WINGA) Database20192004–2010SwedenCross-sectional analysis of retrospective data445268.9 ± 9.635.37.9 ± 7.0
Ichinohasama [8] 2019 JapanCross-sectional129254.0 [40.5–64.5] in no DR group,
55.5 [43.0–63.5] in mild NPDR group
41.86.0 [2.0–11.5] in no DR group, 11.0 [6.3–15.8] in mild NPDR group
Carbonell [7] 2018 SpainCross-sectional340145.0 [37.0–53.0]54.420 [14–29]
Liu [34]Meilong Town Diabetes Health Management Program20152013ChinaCross-sectional community-based1607265.0 ± 7.655.39.9 [5.2–16.9] in DR group and 6.0 [2.9–11.0] in no DR group
Alonso [28] 2015 SpainCross-sectional312259.0 [48.5–66.0] in no DR group,
61.0 [54.0–68.0] in DR group
49.46 [2.5–10] in no DR group, 11 [6–20] in DR group
Jung [27] 20132009–2011South KoreaCross-sectional analysis of retrospective data131255.6 ± 11.345.87.4 ± 6.8
Cardoso [29]Rio de Janeiro Type 2 Diabetes Cohort Study20122004–2007BrazilCross-sectional441260 ± 8.663.910.2 ± 8.6
Yun [10] 2011 South KoreaCross-sectional605267.9 ± 9.869.88.7 ± 7.7
Son [10] 20112008–2010South KoreaCross-sectional142252.4 ± 13.631.7Newly diagnosed
Araszkiewicz [30] 2011 PolandCross-sectional87134 [29–43]50.610 [9–14]
Lacroix [33] 2006 FranceCross-sectional300262.5 ± 12.644.711 ± 9.2
Distiller [31] 2006 South AfricaCross-sectional148148 (19–76)48.626 (18–59)
Rema [9]The Chennai Urban Rural Epidemiology Study (CURES-2)2004 IndiaCross-sectional population-based590252 ± 1156.44 ± 5
  1. Data presented as mean ± SD, median (range), percentage, median [inter-quartile range] or number. Some cells left blank intentionally as these data were not provided