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Table 3 Risks of hospitalized IS/SE and major bleeding among AF patients with non-diabetes, pre-diabetes, and diabetes

From: Glycemic status and risks of thromboembolism and major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation

 Event rate/100 person-years (95% CI)CrudeAdjusted
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)aP value
IS/SE
 Non-diabetes (HbA1c < 5.7%)1.28 (1.18–1.38)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Pre-diabetes (HbA1c 5.7–6.4%)1.36 (1.27–1.44)1.02 (0.92–1.13)0.69681.02 (0.92–1.14)0.6560
 Diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%)1.52 (1.43–1.61)1.26 (1.14–1.39)< 0.00011.26 (1.13–1.41)< 0.0001
 Event rate/100 person–years (95% CI)CrudeAdjusted
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)bP value
Major bleeding
 Non-diabetes (HbA1c < 5.7%)0.79 (0.71–0.87)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 Pre-diabetes (HbA1c 5.7–6.4%)0.76 (0.70–0.83)0.94 (0.82–1.07)0.32980.94 (0.83–1.08)0.3881
 Diabetes (HbA1c ≥ 6.5%)0.82 (0.75–0.88)1.11 (0.97–1.26)0.11840.99 (0.86–1.15)0.9122
  1. a Adjustments for CHA2DS2-VASc score, use of insulin or OHAs, use of warfarin or DOACs, and eGFR
  2. bAdjustments for HAS-BLED score, use of insulin or OHAs, use of warfarin or DOACs, and eGFR
  3. AF atrial fibrillation, CI confidence interval, DOACs direct oral anticoagulants, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin A1c, HR hazard ratio, IS/SE ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, OHAs oral hypoglycemic agents