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Table 2 Risks of hospitalized IS/SE and major bleeding among AF patients in different HbA1c categories

From: Glycemic status and risks of thromboembolism and major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation

 Event rate/100 person-years (95% CI)CrudeAdjusted
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)aP value
IS/SE
 HbA1c < 5.41.20 (1.04–1.36)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 HbA1c 5.4–5.61.33 (1.20–1.47)1.06 (0.9–1.26)0.49261.08 (0.92–1.28)0.3508
 HbA1c 5.7–5.91.41 (1.29–1.54)1.1 (0.93–1.29)0.25761.12 (0.96–1.32)0.1571
 HbA1c 6.0–6.41.31 (1.20–1.42)1.02 (0.87–1.2)0.77011.04 (0.88–1.22)0.6659
 HbA1c 6.5–6.91.47 (1.31–1.63)1.21 (1.01–1.43)0.03411.2 (1–1.43)0.0450
 HbA1c 7.0–7.91.55 (1.40–1.71)1.32 (1.12–1.56)0.00111.32 (1.11–1.57)0.0019
 HbA1c ≥ 8.01.53 (1.39–1.67)1.39 (1.18–1.63)< 0.00011.48 (1.25–1.76)< 0.0001
 Event rate/100 person-years (95% CI)CrudeAdjustedHR (95% CI)bP value
HR (95% CI)P value
Major bleeding
 HbA1c < 5.40.84 (0.71–0.97)1.00 (Reference)1.00 (Reference)
 HbA1c 5.4–5.60.76 (0.65–0.86)0.86 (0.7–1.06)0.15540.9 (0.73–1.11)0.3136
 HbA1c 5.7–5.90.75 (0.66–0.84)0.84 (0.69–1.02)0.07700.88 (0.72–1.08)0.2178
 HbA1c 6.0–6.40.78 (0.69–0.87)0.88 (0.72–1.06)0.17700.89 (0.73–1.08)0.2353
 HbA1c 6.5–6.90.85 (0.73–0.97)1 (0.81–1.24)0.99420.94 (0.76–1.17)0.5790
 HbA1c 7.0–7.90.83 (0.72–0.95)1.02 (0.83–1.26)0.83140.93 (0.75–1.16)0.5121
 HbA1c ≥ 8.00.78 (0.68–0.87)1.01 (0.83–1.24)0.91510.92 (0.74–1.15)0.4700
  1. aAdjustments for CHA2DS2-VASc score, use of insulin or OHAs, use of warfarin or DOACs, and eGFR
  2. bAdjustments for HAS-BLED score, use of insulin or OHAs, use of warfarin or DOACs, and eGFR
  3. AF atrial fibrillation, CI confidence interval, DOACs direct oral anticoagulants, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin A1c, HR hazard ratio, IS/SE ischemic stroke or systemic embolism, OHAs oral hypoglycemic agents