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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of AF patients in different HbA1c categories

From: Glycemic status and risks of thromboembolism and major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation

 Glycemic status represented by HbA1c 
HbA1c < 5.4 (n = 2994)HbA1c 5.4–5.6 (n = 5065)HbA1c 5.7–5.9 (n = 6516)HbA1c 6.0–6.4 (n = 7336)HbA1c 6.5–6.9 (n = 3908)HbA1c 7.0–7.9 (n = 3903)HbA1c ≥ 8.0 (n = 4314)P value (ANOVA)
Age, yrs69.1 (14.3)69.1 (13.5)69.7 (12.8)70.6 (11.8)71.2 (11.1)70.6 (11.0)68.9 (11.2)< 0.0001
Body weight, kg61.0 (13.8)63.5 (13.4)64.5 (13.7)66.1 (14.0)66.9 (14.4)67.2 (14.2)67.1 (13.8)< 0.0001
Stroke comorbidity
 CHA2DS2-VASc score2.9 (1.9)2.8 (1.8)2.9 (1.8)3.1 (1.8)3.5 (1.9)3.6 (1.8)3.5 (1.8)< 0.0001
 Congestive heart failure733 (24.5)1064 (21.0)1350 (20.7)1626 (22.2)989 (25.3)967 (24.8)1103 (25.6)< 0.0001
 Hypertension1532 (51.2)2591 (51.2)3475 (53.3)4229 (57.7)2427 (62.1)2424 (62.1)2486 (57.6)< 0.0001
 Age ≥ 75 yrs1198 (40.0)1898 (37.5)2485 (38.1)2899 (39.5)1535 (39.3)1460 (37.4)1418 (32.9)< 0.0001
 Diabetes Mellitus396 (13.2)625 (12.3)939 (14.4)1873 (25.5)1907 (48.8)2477 (63.5)2733 (63.4)< 0.0001
 Previous stroke or TIA658 (22.0)1080 (21.3)1302 (20.0)1417 (19.3)765 (19.6)780 (20.0)863 (20.0)0.0224
 Vascular disease425 (14.2)684 (13.5)875 (13.4)1069 (14.6)698 (17.9)755 (19.3)820 (19.0)< 0.0001
 Age 65–74 yrs665 (22.2)1231 (24.3)1624 (24.9)1961 (26.7)1116 (28.6)1205 (30.9)1209 (28.0)< 0.0001
 Female1263 (42.2)2081 (41.1)2823 (43.3)3192 (43.5)1801 (46.1)1809 (46.4)2001 (46.4)< 0.0001
Bleeding comorbidity
 HAS-BLED score2.8 (1.4)2.6 (1.3)2.6 (1.3)2.7 (1.2)2.8 (1.2)2.8 (1.3)2.7 (1.3)< 0.0001
 Age ≥ 65 yrs1965 (65.6)3292 (65.0)4347 (66.7)5094 (69.4)2812 (72.0)2803 (71.8)2781 (64.5)< 0.0001
 Chronic liver disease640 (21.4)798 (15.8)995 (15.3)1079 (14.7)610 (15.6)625 (16.0)655 (15.2)< 0.0001
 Chronic kidney disease685 (22.9)925 (18.3)1030 (15.8)1178 (16.1)698 (17.9)774 (19.8)761 (17.6)< 0.0001
 Previous History of bleeding215 (7.2)287 (5.7)362 (5.6)386 (5.3)243 (6.2)212 (5.4)226 (5.2)0.0037
 Previous stroke or TIA658 (22.0)1080 (21.3)1302 (20.0)1417 (19.3)765 (19.6)780 (20.0)863 (20.0)0.0224
 Use of NSAIDs1758 (58.7)2845 (56.2)3698 (56.8)4120 (56.2)2163 (55.4)2131 (54.6)2301 (53.3)< 0.0001
Other comorbidity
 Hyperlipidemia714 (23.9)1293 (25.5)1943 (29.8)2389 (32.6)1396 (35.7)1515 (38.8)1523 (35.3)< 0.0001
 Gout417 (13.9)693 (13.7)837 (12.9)1035 (14.1)521 (13.3)492 (12.6)519 (12.0)0.0232
 Malignancy321 (10.7)465 (9.2)659 (10.1)683 (9.3)406 (10.4)435 (11.2)399 (9.3)0.0056
Laboratory data
 Hemoglobin, g/dl12.1 (2.4)12.7 (2.3)12.9 (2.2)12.9 (2.2)12.6 (2.3)12.5 (2.3)12.8 (2.3)< 0.0001
 Platelet, ×1000/Ul187.1 (76.6)191.4 (73.2)198.3 (74.0)201.9 (74.3)206.4 (78.4)208.4 (80.9)209.2 (84.2)< 0.0001
 eGFR, ml/min/1.73 m269.3 (41.0)70.6 (34.8)72.0 (34.0)70.0 (31.8)67.2 (36.5)65.0 (34.8)64.1 (36.6)< 0.0001
 HbA1c, %5.2 (0.50)5.6 (0.3)5.8 (0.4)6.2 (0.5)6.8 (0.7)7.5 (0.9)9.5 (1.9)< 0.0001
Baseline echocardiography
 Number of patients with data of echocardiography1832 (61.2)3172 (62.2)4207 (64.6)4657 (63.5)2514 (64.3)2509 (64.3)2562 (59.4) 
 LVEF, %62.6 (13.6)62.7 (14.1)62.3 (13.8)61.9 (14.6)61.3 (14.4)61.1 (14.4)60.8 (14.6)< 0.0001
Baseline medications
 Use of Insulin146 (4.9)253 (5.0)337 (5.2)633 (8.6)670 (17.1)1080 (27.7)1786 (41.4)< 0.0001
 Use of OHAs, not including SGLT2i and GLP1 agonist208 (6.9)308 (6.1)554 (8.5)1321 (18.0)1442 (36.9)1930 (49.4)2103 (48.7)< 0.0001
 Use of SGLT2i15 (0.5)45 (0.9)68 (1.0)187 (2.6)212 (5.4)365 (9.4)526 (12.2)< 0.0001
 Use of GLP1 agonist0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)0 (0)1 (0.0)1 (0.0)3 (0.1)0.0028
 Use of warfarin459 (15.3)796 (15.7)1051 (16.1)1082 (14.8)579 (14.8)563 (14.4)609 (14.1)0.0498
 Use of DOACs264 (8.8)541 (10.7)824 (12.7)1030 (14.0)513 (13.1)438 (11.2)356 (8.3)< 0.0001
 Use of NSAIDs410 (13.7)588 (11.6)739 (11.3)947 (12.9)508 (13.0)494 (12.7)601 (13.9)< 0.0001
 Use of ACEI/ARB1209 (40.4)2167 (42.8)2855 (43.8)3559 (48.5)1966 (50.3)2006 (51.4)2048 (47.5)< 0.0001
 Use of loop diuretics842 (28.1)1257 (24.8)1591 (24.4)1993 (27.2)1262 (32.3)1265 (32.4)1493 (34.6)< 0.0001
 Use of amiodarone577 (19.3)983 (19.4)1105 (17.0)1279 (17.4)728 (18.6)678 (17.4)661 (15.3)< 0.0001
 Use of dronedarone47 (1.6)76 (1.5)103 (1.6)89 (1.2)43 (1.1)42 (1.1)18 (0.4)< 0.0001
 Use of beta-blocker1222 (40.8)2183 (43.1)2947 (45.2)3457 (47.1)2011 (51.5)1950 (50.0)2003 (46.4)< 0.0001
 Use of diltiazem396 (13.2)721 (14.2)1025 (15.7)1145 (15.6)699 (17.9)721 (18.5)756 (17.5)< 0.0001
 Use of verapamil127 (4.2)206 (4.1)258 (4.0)313 (4.3)168 (4.3)184 (4.7)174 (4.0)0.6483
 Use of digoxin498 (16.6)740 (14.6)1005 (15.4)1204 (16.4)698 (17.9)735 (18.8)1054 (24.4)< 0.0001
 Use of statin368 (12.3)838 (16.5)1330 (20.4)1720 (23.5)1073 (27.5)1144 (29.3)1098 (25.5)< 0.0001
  1. Data are expressed as mean ± standard deviation or as numbers (percentage)
  2. ACEI angiotensin-converting-enzyme inhibitor, AF atrial fibrillation, APT antiplatelet agent, ARB angiotensin II receptor antagonists, CHA2DS2-VASc congestive heart failure, hypertension, age 75 years or older, diabetes mellitus, previous stroke/transient ischemic attack, vascular disease, age 65 to 74 years, female, DOACs direct oral anticoagulants, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, GLP1 glucagon -like peptide-1, HAS-BLED hypertension, abnormal renal or liver function, stroke, bleeding history, labile INR, age 65 years or older, and antiplatelet drug or alcohol use, HbA1c glycated hemoglobin A1c, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, OHAs oral hypoglycemic agent, NSAIDs non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, SGLT2i sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, TIA transient ischemic attack