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Table 1 Effect of a 6-week oral intake of empagliflozin on plasma, blood and urine parameters in the lean control and ZSF1 groups

From: Empagliflozin improved systolic blood pressure, endothelial dysfunction and heart remodeling in the metabolic syndrome ZSF1 rat

 ControlEmpaZSF1ZSF1 + Empa
Plasma
 Glycemia (mmol/l)11.33 ± 1.119.94 ± 1.3028.07 ± 2.13*20.81 ± 0.78*,#
 Urea (mmol/l)5.84 ± 0.268.71 ± 0.31*6.86 ± 0.307.56 ± 0.28*
 Plasma creatinine (µmol/l)33.18 ± 0.4631.23 ± 0.56*24.21 ± 0.80*25.37 ± 0.22
 Plasma proteins (g/l)58.89 ± 0.9958.88 ± 0.8364.88 ± 0.90*64.00 ± 0.69*
 Albumin (g/l)36.49 ± 0.4937.16 ± 0.4939.46 ± 0.48*39.49 ± 0.43*
 Bilirubin (μmol/l)0.57 ± 0.020.61 ± 0.060.25 ± 0.16*0.01 ± 0.01*
 AST (U/l)130.90 ± 12.34171.00 ± 7.80220.60 ± 35.64*152.20 ± 8.94
 ALT (U/l)63.78 ± 2.74108.80 ± 7.56161.20 ± 19.02*131.20 ± 8.05
 ALP (U/l)62.78 ± 4.0672.13 ± 8.60136.60 ± 13.24*97.11 ± 10.87#
 Total cholesterol (mmol/l)2.33 ± 0.062.38 ± 0.116.31 ± 0.34*4.90 ± 0.30*,#
 HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.37 ± 0.021.43 ± 0.052.51 ± 0.09*2.45 ± 0.08*
 LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)0.63 ± 0.030.69 ± 0.020.75 ± 0.04*0.66 ± 0.06
 Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.48 ± 0.050.49 ± 0.036.23 ± 1.06*2.92 ± 0.28*,#
Blood
 Ketone (mmol/l)0.33 ± 0.060.71 ± 0.10*0.32 ± 0.060.56 ± 0.10#
 Glucose (mg/dl)134.60 ± 9.07134.10 ± 8.69274.50 ± 29.41*196.70 ± 22.16#
Urine
 Glycosuria (mmol)0.89 ± 0.4012.03 ± 1.55*6.09 ± 0.85*17.47 ± 0.98*,#
 Proteinuria (g/l)1.59 ± 0.170.74 ± 0.0611.35 ± 0.84*4.62 ± 0.44*,#
 Volume (ml)9.33 ± 0.9426.22 ± 1.62*22.11 ± 2.31*39.40 ± 2.22*,#
  1. Metabolic parameters were measured in plasma except for ketone and glucose which were determined in whole blood, and glycosuria and proteinuria which were determined in urine collected over a 24-h period. Values are shown as mean ± SEM of n = 5–10 per group
  2. Empa empagliflozin, AST aspartate aminotransferase, ALT alanine aminotransferase, ALP alkaline phosphatase, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDL low density lipoprotein
  3. * P < 0.05 vs control group and #P < 0.05 vs ZSF1 group