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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Increased risk of cardiovascular mortality by strict glycemic control (pre-procedural HbA1c < 6.5%) in Japanese medically-treated diabetic patients following percutaneous coronary intervention: a 10-year follow-up study

 OverallHbA1c < 6.5%6.5 ≤ HbA1c < 7.0%7.0 ≤ HbA1c < 7.5%7.5 ≤ HbA1c < 8.5%HbA1c ≥ 8.5%P-value
(n = 1328)(< 6.5%)(6.5–7%)(7–7.5%)(7.5–8.5%)(≥ 8.5%)
(n = 267)(n = 268)(n = 262)(n = 287)(n = 244)
Age, years-old66.7 ± 9.768.3 ± 9.868.5 ± 8.467.5 ± 9.166.2 ± 9.662.6 ± 10.8< 0.001
BMI, kg/m224.5 ± 3.624.1 ± 3.224.7 ± 3.824.2 ± 3.524.8 ± 3.624.9 ± 3.70.018
Male, n (%)1079 (81.3)222 (83.2)210 (78.4)217 (82.8)239 (83.3)191 (78.3)0.32
Hypertension, n (%)994 (74.9)215 (80.5)208 (77.6)197 (75.2)206 (71.8)168 (68.9)0.019
Dyslipidemia, n (%)1246 (93.8)253 (94.8)248 (92.5)247 (94.3)272 (94.8)226 (92.6)0.68
Current or ex-smoker, n (%)348 (26.3)48 (18.0)62 (23.2)63 (24.1)80 (28.0)95 (38.9)< 0.001
Family history, n (%)365 (27.6)73 (27.4)75 (28.0)73 (28.0)67 (23.5)77 (31.6)0.36
ACS presentation, n (%)344 (25.9)60 (22.5)52 (19.4)61 (23.3)82 (28.6)89 (36.5)< 0.001
Number of diseased vessels2.0 ± 0.82.1 ± 0.82.0 ± 0.82.0 ± 0.92.0 ± 0.81.9 ± 0.80.60
Complex lesion, n (%)a1095 (88.3)224 (89.2)225 (88.9)222 (89.5)226 (85.0)198 (89.2)0.45
Use of Stent, n (%)1202 (90.5)251 (94.0)238 (88.8)232 (88.6)261 (90.9)220 (90.2)0.20
SBP, mmHg135.9 ± 23.4136.3 ± 22.8137.2 ± 23.6136.1 ± 24.3135.7 ± 22.1134.0 ± 24.30.62
DBP, mmHg73.0 ± 14.073.5 ± 13.573.0 ± 13.572.6 ± 15.272.5 ± 13.773.5 ± 13.80.86
Ejection fraction, (%)60.9 ± 12.861.4 ± 11.360.8 ± 12.861.6 ± 13.660.8 ± 13.659.7 ± 12.70.59
Hemoglobin, g/dL13.3 ± 1.813.1 ± 1.913.1 ± 1.813.3 ± 1.613.5 ± 1.713.6 ± 2.0< 0.001
HbA1c, %7.5 ± 1.36.1 ± 0.36.8 ± 0.17.3 ± 0.27.9 ± 0.39.7 ± 1.2< 0.001
TC, mg/dL176.3 ± 39.2168.0 ± 37.8172.9 ± 35.2172.2 ± 37.5178.1 ± 38.8191.6 ± 43.0< 0.001
LDL-C, mg/dL105.8 ± 33.2100.5 ± 35.8103.0 ± 28.6102.6 ± 31.2105.6 ± 31.8118.4 ± 35.6< 0.001
HDL-C, mg/dL43.2 ± 13.142.3 ± 12.143.5 ± 12.544.2 ± 12.042.9 ± 13.142.9 ± 15.70.55
TG, mg/dL118 (87.0–165)113 (83.0–150)116 (87.3–162)113 (82.0–152)122 (90.0–181)129 (93.0–185)0.0024
Blood glucose, mg/dL146.0 ± 64.7117.7 ± 36.7126.4 ± 41.7140.4 ± 53.3153.0 ± 63.4196.3 ± 87.9< 0.001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m272.5 ± 22.970.0 ± 20.170.0 ± 23.472.1 ± 23.773.7 ± 21.877.2 ± 25.10.0014
CKD (stage 3–5), n (%)369 (27.8)83 (31.1)84 (31.3)75 (28.6)70 (24.4)57 (23.4)0.12
hs-CRP, mg/dL0.11 [0.04–0.32]0.10 [0.03–0.25]0.10 [0.04–0.28]0.09 [0.04–0.22]0.13 [0.05–0.37]0.20 [0.06–0.60]< 0.001
Alb, g/dL3.91 ± 0.463.92 ± 0.423.90 ± 0.473.92 ± 0.463.92 ± 0.463.88 ± 0.520.86
GNRI103.1 [96.0–109.7]102.3 [95.9–108.0]103.9 [96.0–110.3]101.8 [94.2–109.5]103.9 [97.0–110.7]104.1 [96.4–110.2]0.18
Diabetes duration, years12 [5.0–20]10 [3.0–20]13 [5.0–20]12 [5.0–20]12 [6.0–20]12 [5.0–20]0.18
Glucose-lowering drugs
 Sulfonylurea, n (%)564 (42.5)99 (37.1)106 (39.6)101 (38.6)141 (49.1)117 (48.0)0.0074
 Metformin, n (%)258 (19.4)41 (15.4)48 (17.9)61 (23.3)61 (21.3)47 (19.3)0.18
 Thiazolidinedione, n (%)169 (12.7)32 (12.0)40 (14.9)34 (13.0)41 (14.3)22 (9.0)0.29
 DPP4 inhibitor, n (%)274 (20.6)76 (28.5)70 (26.1)55 (21.0)55 (19.2)18 (7.4)< 0.001
 α-Glucosidase inhibitor, n (%)516 (38.9)113 (42.3)104 (38.8)97 (37.0)112 (39.0)90 (36.9)0.71
 Glinides, n (%)144 (10.8)30 (11.2)31 (11.6)36 (13.7)26 (9.1)21 (8.6)0.32
 Insulin, n (%)427 (32.2)37 (13.9)69 (25.8)81 (30.9)99 (34.5)141 (57.8)< 0.001
Other drugs
 Statin, n (%)1006 (75.8)203 (76.0)215 (80.2)192 (73.3)220 (76.7)176 (72.1)0.23
 Beta-blocker, n (%)631 (48.1)132 (49.8)133 (49.8)113 (43.6)135 (48.0)118 (49.4)0.58
 ACEI/ARB, n (%)724 (55.2)149 (56.2)151 (56.6)139 (53.7)145 (51.6)140 (58.6)0.54
  1. BMI body mass index, ACS acute coronary syndrome, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, TG triglycerides, FBG fasting blood glucose, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, CKD chronic kidney disease, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, Alb albumin, GNRI geriatric nutritional risk index, DPP4 dipeptidyl peptidase 4, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker
  2. aComplex lesion defined as ACC/AHA type B2 or type C lesion. ACC/AHA American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association