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Table 1 Baseline clinical characteristics of the study population

From: Increased risk of cardiovascular mortality by strict glycemic control (pre-procedural HbA1c < 6.5%) in Japanese medically-treated diabetic patients following percutaneous coronary intervention: a 10-year follow-up study

  Overall HbA1c < 6.5% 6.5 ≤ HbA1c < 7.0% 7.0 ≤ HbA1c < 7.5% 7.5 ≤ HbA1c < 8.5% HbA1c ≥ 8.5% P-value
(n = 1328) (< 6.5%) (6.5–7%) (7–7.5%) (7.5–8.5%) (≥ 8.5%)
(n = 267) (n = 268) (n = 262) (n = 287) (n = 244)
Age, years-old 66.7 ± 9.7 68.3 ± 9.8 68.5 ± 8.4 67.5 ± 9.1 66.2 ± 9.6 62.6 ± 10.8 < 0.001
BMI, kg/m2 24.5 ± 3.6 24.1 ± 3.2 24.7 ± 3.8 24.2 ± 3.5 24.8 ± 3.6 24.9 ± 3.7 0.018
Male, n (%) 1079 (81.3) 222 (83.2) 210 (78.4) 217 (82.8) 239 (83.3) 191 (78.3) 0.32
Hypertension, n (%) 994 (74.9) 215 (80.5) 208 (77.6) 197 (75.2) 206 (71.8) 168 (68.9) 0.019
Dyslipidemia, n (%) 1246 (93.8) 253 (94.8) 248 (92.5) 247 (94.3) 272 (94.8) 226 (92.6) 0.68
Current or ex-smoker, n (%) 348 (26.3) 48 (18.0) 62 (23.2) 63 (24.1) 80 (28.0) 95 (38.9) < 0.001
Family history, n (%) 365 (27.6) 73 (27.4) 75 (28.0) 73 (28.0) 67 (23.5) 77 (31.6) 0.36
ACS presentation, n (%) 344 (25.9) 60 (22.5) 52 (19.4) 61 (23.3) 82 (28.6) 89 (36.5) < 0.001
Number of diseased vessels 2.0 ± 0.8 2.1 ± 0.8 2.0 ± 0.8 2.0 ± 0.9 2.0 ± 0.8 1.9 ± 0.8 0.60
Complex lesion, n (%)a 1095 (88.3) 224 (89.2) 225 (88.9) 222 (89.5) 226 (85.0) 198 (89.2) 0.45
Use of Stent, n (%) 1202 (90.5) 251 (94.0) 238 (88.8) 232 (88.6) 261 (90.9) 220 (90.2) 0.20
SBP, mmHg 135.9 ± 23.4 136.3 ± 22.8 137.2 ± 23.6 136.1 ± 24.3 135.7 ± 22.1 134.0 ± 24.3 0.62
DBP, mmHg 73.0 ± 14.0 73.5 ± 13.5 73.0 ± 13.5 72.6 ± 15.2 72.5 ± 13.7 73.5 ± 13.8 0.86
Ejection fraction, (%) 60.9 ± 12.8 61.4 ± 11.3 60.8 ± 12.8 61.6 ± 13.6 60.8 ± 13.6 59.7 ± 12.7 0.59
Hemoglobin, g/dL 13.3 ± 1.8 13.1 ± 1.9 13.1 ± 1.8 13.3 ± 1.6 13.5 ± 1.7 13.6 ± 2.0 < 0.001
HbA1c, % 7.5 ± 1.3 6.1 ± 0.3 6.8 ± 0.1 7.3 ± 0.2 7.9 ± 0.3 9.7 ± 1.2 < 0.001
TC, mg/dL 176.3 ± 39.2 168.0 ± 37.8 172.9 ± 35.2 172.2 ± 37.5 178.1 ± 38.8 191.6 ± 43.0 < 0.001
LDL-C, mg/dL 105.8 ± 33.2 100.5 ± 35.8 103.0 ± 28.6 102.6 ± 31.2 105.6 ± 31.8 118.4 ± 35.6 < 0.001
HDL-C, mg/dL 43.2 ± 13.1 42.3 ± 12.1 43.5 ± 12.5 44.2 ± 12.0 42.9 ± 13.1 42.9 ± 15.7 0.55
TG, mg/dL 118 (87.0–165) 113 (83.0–150) 116 (87.3–162) 113 (82.0–152) 122 (90.0–181) 129 (93.0–185) 0.0024
Blood glucose, mg/dL 146.0 ± 64.7 117.7 ± 36.7 126.4 ± 41.7 140.4 ± 53.3 153.0 ± 63.4 196.3 ± 87.9 < 0.001
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2 72.5 ± 22.9 70.0 ± 20.1 70.0 ± 23.4 72.1 ± 23.7 73.7 ± 21.8 77.2 ± 25.1 0.0014
CKD (stage 3–5), n (%) 369 (27.8) 83 (31.1) 84 (31.3) 75 (28.6) 70 (24.4) 57 (23.4) 0.12
hs-CRP, mg/dL 0.11 [0.04–0.32] 0.10 [0.03–0.25] 0.10 [0.04–0.28] 0.09 [0.04–0.22] 0.13 [0.05–0.37] 0.20 [0.06–0.60] < 0.001
Alb, g/dL 3.91 ± 0.46 3.92 ± 0.42 3.90 ± 0.47 3.92 ± 0.46 3.92 ± 0.46 3.88 ± 0.52 0.86
GNRI 103.1 [96.0–109.7] 102.3 [95.9–108.0] 103.9 [96.0–110.3] 101.8 [94.2–109.5] 103.9 [97.0–110.7] 104.1 [96.4–110.2] 0.18
Diabetes duration, years 12 [5.0–20] 10 [3.0–20] 13 [5.0–20] 12 [5.0–20] 12 [6.0–20] 12 [5.0–20] 0.18
Glucose-lowering drugs
 Sulfonylurea, n (%) 564 (42.5) 99 (37.1) 106 (39.6) 101 (38.6) 141 (49.1) 117 (48.0) 0.0074
 Metformin, n (%) 258 (19.4) 41 (15.4) 48 (17.9) 61 (23.3) 61 (21.3) 47 (19.3) 0.18
 Thiazolidinedione, n (%) 169 (12.7) 32 (12.0) 40 (14.9) 34 (13.0) 41 (14.3) 22 (9.0) 0.29
 DPP4 inhibitor, n (%) 274 (20.6) 76 (28.5) 70 (26.1) 55 (21.0) 55 (19.2) 18 (7.4) < 0.001
 α-Glucosidase inhibitor, n (%) 516 (38.9) 113 (42.3) 104 (38.8) 97 (37.0) 112 (39.0) 90 (36.9) 0.71
 Glinides, n (%) 144 (10.8) 30 (11.2) 31 (11.6) 36 (13.7) 26 (9.1) 21 (8.6) 0.32
 Insulin, n (%) 427 (32.2) 37 (13.9) 69 (25.8) 81 (30.9) 99 (34.5) 141 (57.8) < 0.001
Other drugs
 Statin, n (%) 1006 (75.8) 203 (76.0) 215 (80.2) 192 (73.3) 220 (76.7) 176 (72.1) 0.23
 Beta-blocker, n (%) 631 (48.1) 132 (49.8) 133 (49.8) 113 (43.6) 135 (48.0) 118 (49.4) 0.58
 ACEI/ARB, n (%) 724 (55.2) 149 (56.2) 151 (56.6) 139 (53.7) 145 (51.6) 140 (58.6) 0.54
  1. BMI body mass index, ACS acute coronary syndrome, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, TC total cholesterol, LDL-C low density lipoprotein-cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein-cholesterol, TG triglycerides, FBG fasting blood glucose, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, CKD chronic kidney disease, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, Alb albumin, GNRI geriatric nutritional risk index, DPP4 dipeptidyl peptidase 4, ACEI angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, ARB angiotensin receptor blocker
  2. aComplex lesion defined as ACC/AHA type B2 or type C lesion. ACC/AHA American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association