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Table 4 Adjusted hazard ratios for atrial fibrillation and 95% confidence intervals for time-updated mean HbA1c categories together with albuminuria and eGFR versus the reference group examined by Cox regression

From: Risk of atrial fibrillation in persons with type 2 diabetes and the excess risk in relation to glycaemic control and renal function: a Swedish cohort study

Atrial fibrillationHazard ratio (95% CI)
p-value
Model 1Model 2Model 3
Time updated mean HbA1c categories and albuminurian events = 179,166
N subjects = 2,471,982
Data used = 96.8%
n events = 175,683
N subjects = 2,429,261
Data used = 95.2%
n events = 173,899
N subjects = 2,408,243
Data used = 94.3%
 Controls (reference)1.001.001.00
 ≤ 6.9% (≤ 52 mmol/mol)–normoalbuminuria1.22 (1.20–1.24) < 0.00011.17 (1.15–1.20) < 0.00011.16 (1.14–1.19) < 0.0001
 7.0–7.8% (53–62 mmol/mol)–normoalbuminuria1.22 (1.19–1.25) < 0.00011.16 (1.13–1.20) < 0.00011.16 (1.13–1.19) < 0.0001
 7.9–8.7% (63–72 mmol/mol)–normoalbuminuria1.30 (1.24–1.35) < 0.00011.23 (1.17–1.28) < 0.00011.24 (1.18–1.29) < 0.0001
 8.8–9.6% (73–82 mmol/mol)–Normoalbuminuria1.40 (1.30–1.51) < 0.00011.32 (1.23–1.43) < 0.00011.31 (1.21–1.42) < 0.0001
 ≥ 9.7% (≥ 83 mmol/mol)–normoalbuminuria1.43 (1.28–1.61) < 0.00011.35 (1.20–1.51) < 0.00011.35 (1.20–1.52) < 0.0001
 ≤ 6.9% (≤ 52 mmol/mol)–Not normoalbuminuria1.68 (1.63–1.73) < 0.00011.56 (1.52–1.61) < 0.00011.55 (1.50–1.60) < 0.0001
 7.0–7.8% (53–62 mmol/mol)–Not normoalbuminuria1.72 (1.67–1.79) < 0.00011.62 (1.56–1.67) < 0.00011.61 (1.55–1.67) < 0.0001
 7.9–8.7% (63–72 mmol/mol)–Not normoalbuminuria1.86 (1.77–1.95) < 0.00011.72 (1.64–1.81) < 0.00011.73 (1.64–1.82) < 0.0001
 8.8–9.6% (73–82 mmol/mol)–Not normoalbuminuria2.04 (1.90–2.20) < 0.00011.85 (1.71–1.99) < 0.00011.85 (1.71–2.00) < 0.0001
 ≥ 9.7% (≥ 83 mmol/mol)–Not normoalbuminuria2.20 (1.97–2.45) < 0.00012.00 (1.79–2.23) < 0.00012.04 (1.82–2.28) < 0.0001
Time updated mean HbA1c categories and eGFRn events = 182,743 
N subjects = 2,522,210
Data used = 98.8%
n events = 179,127 
N subjects = 2,477,785
Data used = 97.1%
n events = 176,733 
N subjects = 2,447,085
Data used = 95.8%
 Controls (reference)1.001.001.00
 ≤ 6.9% (≤ 52 mmol/mol) –eGFR ≥ 601.26 (1.24–1.29) < 0.00011.22 (1.20–1.25) < 0.00011.21 (1.19–1.24) < 0.0001
 7.0–7.8% (53- 62 mmol/mol)–eGFR ≥ 601.29 (1.26–1.32) < 0.00011.24 (1.21–1.28) < 0.00011.24 (1.20–1.27) < 0.0001
 7.9–8.7% (63–72 mmol/mol)–eGFR ≥ 601.38 (1.33–1.44) < 0.00011.33 (1.27–1.38) < 0.00011.33 (1.27–1.39) < 0.0001
 8.8–9.6% (73–82 mmol/mol)–eGFR ≥ 601.51 (1.41–1.61) < 0.00011.43 (1.34–1.53) < 0.00011.41 (1.32–1.52) < 0.0001
 ≥ 9.7% (≥ 83 mmol/mol)–eGFR >=601.55 (1.42–1.71) < 0.00011.51 (1.38–1.66)
< 0.0001
1.52 (1.38–1.68) < 0.0001
 ≤ 6.9% (≤ 52 mmol/mol)–eGFR < 601.45 (1.42–1.49) < 0.00011.33 (1.30–1.37) <  0.00011.32 (1.28–1.36) < 0.0001
 7.0–7.8% (53–62 mmol/mol)–eGFR < 601.54 (1.49–1.60) < 0.00011.41 (1.36–1.46) < 0.00011.40 (1.35–1.45) < 0.0001
 7.9–8.7% (63–72 mmol/mol)–eGFR < 601.73 (1.65–1.81) < 0.00011.55 (1.47–1.62) < 0.00011.56 (1.48–1.65) < 0.0001
 8.8–9.6% (73–82 mmol/mol)–eGFR < 601.87 (1.72–2.03)
< 0.0001
1.64 (1.51–1.79)
< 0.0001
1.65 (1.51–1.80)
< 0.0001
 ≥ 9.7% (≥ 83 mmol/mol)–eGFR < 601.98 (1.74–2.25)
< 0.0001
1.71 (1.50–1.95)
< 0.0001
1.75 (1.53–2.00)
< 0.0001
Time updated mean HbA1c categories albuminuria and eGFRn events = 179,980 
N subjects = 2,480,217
Data used = 97.1%
n events = 176,459 
N subjects = 2,437,158
Data used = 95.5%
n events = 174,466 
N subjects = 2,414,092
Data used = 94.6%
 Controls (reference)1.001.001.00
 ≤ 6.9% (≤ 52 mmol/mol)–Normoalbuminuria and eGFR ≥601.19 (1.16–1.22) < 0.00011.16 (1.13–1.19)
< 0.0001
1.15 (1.12–1.18)
< 0.0001
 7.0–7.8% (53–62 mmol/mol)–Normoalbuminuria and  eGFR ≥ 601.17 (1.14–1.21) < 0.00011.14 (1.10–1.18) < 0.00011.13 (1.09–1.17) < 0.0001
 7.9–8.7% (63–72 mmol/mol)–Normoalbuminuria and eGFR ≥ 601.22 (1.16–1.29) < 0.00011.17 (1.11–1.24) < 0.00011.19 (1.13–1.26) < 0.0001
 8.8–9.6% (73–82 mmol/mol)–Normoalbuminuria and eGFR ≥ 601.30 (1.18–1.43) < 0.00011.25 (1.14–1.38) < 0.00011.25 (1.13–1.38) < 0.0001
 ≥ 9.7% (≥ 83 mmol/mol)–Normoalbuminuria and eGFR ≥ 601.40 (1.22–1.62) < 0.00011.35 (1.16–1.56) < 0.00011.33 (1.14–1.55) < 0.0002
 ≤ 6.9% (≤ 52 mmol/mol)–Not Normoalbuminuria or eGFR < 601.50 (1.47–1.53) < 0.00011.39 (1.36–1.42) < 0.00011.38 (1.34–1.41) < 0.0001
 7.0–7.8% (53–62 mmol/mol)–Not Normoalbuminuria or eGFR < 601.57 (1.52–1.61) < 0.00011.45 (1.41–1.49) < 0.00011.45 (1.41–1.50) < 0.0001
 7.9–8.7% (63–72 mmol/mol)–Not Normoalbuminuria or eGFR < 601.75 (1.68–1.81) < 0.00011.60 (1.54–1.66) < 0.00011.61 (1.55–1.68) < 0.0001
 8.8–9.6% (73–82 mmol/mol)–Not Normoalbuminuria or eGFR < 601.90 (1.79–2.03) < 0.00011.71 (1.60–1.82) < 0.00011.72 (1.61–1.84) < 0.0001
 ≥ 9.7% (≥ 83 mmol/mol)–Not Normoalbuminuria or eGFR < 602.03 (1.85–2.23) < 0.00011.84 (1.67–2.02) < 0.00011.88 (1.71–2.08) < 0.0001
  1. Model 1: adjusted for time-updated age and sex
  2. Model 2: model 1 additionally adjusted for born in Sweden, maximum education level and baseline comorbidities (CHD, HF, VD, stroke, cancer)
  3. Model 3: model 2 additionally adjusted for time-updated diabetes duration