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Table 3 Adjusted hazard ratios for atrial fibrillation and 95% confidence intervals for time-updated mean HbA1c categories, albuminuria categories and eGFR categories versus the reference group examined by Cox regression

From: Risk of atrial fibrillation in persons with type 2 diabetes and the excess risk in relation to glycaemic control and renal function: a Swedish cohort study

Atrial fibrillationHazard ratio (95% CI)
p value
Model 1Model 2Model 3
Time updated mean HbA1c categoriesn events = 185,793 
N subjects = 2,544,103
data used = 99.6%
n events = 182,081 
N subjects = 2,498,727
data used = 97.9%
n events = 179,445 
N subjects = 2,465,540
data used = 96.6%
 Controls (reference)1.001.001.00
 ≤ 6.9% (≤ 52 mmol/mol)1.32 (1.30–1.34) < 0.00011.26 (1.24–1.27) < 0.00011.24 (1.22–1.26) < 0.0001
 7.0–7.8% (53–62 mmol/mol)1.36 (1.34–1.39) < 0.00011.29 (1.27–1.32) < 0.00011.28 (1.25–1.31) < 0.0001
 7.9–8.7% (63–72 mmol/mol)1.47 (1.43–1.52) < 0.00011.38 (1.34–1.42) < 0.00011.38 (1.34–1.42) < 0.0001
 8.8–9.6% (73–82 mmol/mol)1.61 (1.54–1.69) < 0.00011.49 (1.42–1.57) < 0.00011.47 (1.40–1.55) < 0.0001
 ≥ 9.7% (≥ 83 mmol/mol)1.65 (1.55–1.77) < 0.00011.56 (1.46–1.68) < 0.00011.57 (1.46–1.68) < 0.0001
Time updated albuminuria categoriesn events = 179,380 
N subjects = 2,473,810
Data used = 96.9%
n events = 175,890 
N subjects = 2,431,009
Data used = 95.2%
n events = 174,059 
N subjects = 2,409,479
Data used = 94.4%
 Controls (reference)1.001.001.00
 Normoalbuminuria1.24 (1.22–1.25) < 0.00011.18 (1.17–1.20) < 0.00011.17 (1.16–1.19) < 0.0001
 Microalbuminuria1.63 (1.59–1.67) < 0.00011.54 (1.50–1.58) < 0.00011.52 (1.48–1.56) < 0.0001
 Macroalbuminuria1.91 (1.85–1.97) < 0.00011.75 (1.69–1.80) < 0.00011.74 (1.68–1.80) < 0.0001
 CKD stage 53.73 (3.32–4.20) < 0.00013.23 (2.87–3.64) < 0.00013.24 (2.86–3.66)
< 0.0001
Time updated eGFR categoriesn events = 183,107 
N subjects = 2,525,557
Data used = 98.9%
n events = 179,482 
N subjects = 2,481,018
Data used = 97.2%
n events = 176,958 
N subjects = 2,449,089
Data used = 95.9%
 Controls (reference)1.001.001.00
 CKD stage 1 (eGFR ≥ 90)1.38 (1.34–1.42) < 0.00011.35 (1.31–1.39) < 0.00011.33 (1.29–1.37) < 0.0001
 CKD stage 2 (eGFR 60–89)1.28 (1.26–1.30) < 0.00011.23 (1.21–1.25) < 0.00011.22 (1.20–1.24) < 0.0001
 CKD stage 3 (eGFR 30–59)1.47 (1.44–1.50) < 0.00011.34 (1.32–1.37) < 0.00011.33 (1.30–1.36) < 0.0001
 CKD stage 4 (eGFR 15–29)2.09 (1.98–2.21) < 0.00011.78 (1.68–1.88) < 0.00011.76 (1.66–1.87) < 0.0001
 CKD stage 5 (eGFR < 15 or dialysis)3.77 (3.36–4.25) < 0.00013.27 (2.91–3.69) < 0.00013.24 (2.87–3.67) < 0.0001
  1. Model 1: adjusted for time-updated age and sex
  2. Model 2: model 1 additionally adjusted for born in Sweden, maximum education level and baseline comorbidities (CHD, HF, VD, stroke, cancer)
  3. Model 3: model 2 additionally adjusted for time-updated diabetes duration (effects taken for DD = 7 years [median])