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Table 1 Characteristics of the study patients with and without use of pioglitazone after propensity score matching

From: Pioglitazone and PPAR-γ modulating treatment in hypertensive and type 2 diabetic patients after ischemic stroke: a national cohort study

CharacteristicsPioglitazone (n = 3189)Non-pioglitazone (n = 6378)STD
Age, years67.0 ± 10.066.9 ± 10.30.008
Age group, n (%)
 < 65 years1302 (40.8)2615 (41.0)− 0.004
 65–74 years1151 (36.1)2336 (36.6)− 0.011
 ≥ 75 years736 (23.1)1427 (22.4)0.017
Male, n (%)1580 (49.5)3154 (49.5)0.002
Admitted in medical center, n (%)957 (30.0)1995 (31.3)− 0.028
DM duration, years8.6 ± 3.48.6 ± 3.5− 0.003
Comorbidity, n (%)
 Atrial fibrillation89 (2.8)154 (2.4)0.024
 Myocardial infarction90 (2.8)180 (2.8)0.000
 Malignancy138 (4.3)288 (4.5)− 0.009
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease197 (6.2)395 (6.2)− 0.001
 Chronic kidney disease221 (6.9)466 (7.3)− 0.015
 Dialysis27 (0.8)55 (0.9)− 0.002
 Old stroke282 (8.8)622 (9.8)− 0.031
 Coronary artery disease787 (24.7)1594 (25.0)− 0.007
 Dyslipidemia1673 (52.5)3309 (51.9)0.012
 CCI total score3.6 ± 1.63.6 ± 1.6− 0.008
Estimated NIHSS5.3 ± 3.35.3 ± 3.20.007
Estimated NIHSS group, n (%)
 ≤ 52480 (77.8)4958 (77.7)0.001
 6–13556 (17.4)1132 (17.7)− 0.008
 > 13153 (4.8)288 (4.5)0.013
Anti-hypertensive agent, n (%)
 Telmisartan246 (7.7)465 (7.3)0.016
 Alpha-blocker288 (9.0)580 (9.1)− 0.002
 Diuretics (thiazide/loop diuretics/spironolactone)830 (26.0)1652 (25.9)0.003
 Beta-blocker1275 (40.0)2630 (41.2)− 0.026
 CCB1928 (60.5)3835 (60.1)0.007
Average number of anti-hypertension drugs2.4 ± 1.12.5 ± 1.1− 0.014
Antidiabetic agent, n (%)
 Insulin560 (17.6)1133 (17.8)− 0.005
 DPP4i576 (18.1)1168 (18.3)− 0.007
 Secretagogue (Glinide)578 (18.1)1120 (17.6)0.015
 Alpha glucosidase828 (26.0)1671 (26.2)− 0.005
 Biguanide (metformin)2186 (68.5)4327 (67.8)0.015
 Sulfonylurea2408 (75.5)4799 (75.2)0.006
Other medications, n (%)
 Anticoagulant102 (3.2)197 (3.1)0.006
 Fibrate444 (13.9)907 (14.2)− 0.009
 Clopidogrel532 (16.7)1070 (16.8)− 0.003
 Statin1616 (50.7)3218 (50.5)0.004
 Aspirin2431 (76.2)4925 (77.2)− 0.023
Follow-up years4.0 ± 2.43.9 ± 2.40.022
Propensity score0.128 ± 0.0700.128 ± 0.0700.002
  1. DM diabetes mellitus, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, NIHSS National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale, CCB calcium channel blockers, DPP4i dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor, STD standardized difference
  2. An absolute STD < 0.1 was considered as a non-substantially difference between the groups