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Table 4 Sensitivity analyses for evaluating the potential bias due to comorbidities, by excluding persons with diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic coma, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, and hypoglycemia

From: Fasting plasma glucose variability and HbA1c are associated with peripheral artery disease risk in type 2 diabetes

VariablesnCasesPerson-yearsIRMultivariate-adjusted HR 95% CI
Model I
 HbA1c (%)
  < 626075621,284.982.631.00
  6–813,335368110,444.513.331.21 (0.91, 1.61)
  8–10907724274,554.233.251.07 (0.79, 1.45)
  ≥ 10538620543,260.944.741.53 (1.11, 2.09)**
 p for trend    0.01
 FPG-CV (%)
  ≤ 17.510,07424484,668.742.881.00
  17.5–34.810,04830383,481.243.631.19 (1.01, 1.42)*
  > 34.810,28332481,394.683.981.23 (1.04, 1.47)*
 p for trend    0.02
Model II
 HbA1c (%)
  < 626295821,421.832.711.00
  6–813,412372110,998.853.351.18 (0.89, 1.56)
  8–10914424575,038.393.261.04 (0.77, 1.40)
  ≥ 10543621143,554.034.841.51 (1.11, 2.05)**
 p for trend    0.01
 FPG-CV (%)
  ≤ 17.510,12624685,067.162.891.00
  17.5–34.810,10530483,885.013.621.19 (1.00, 1.41)*
  > 34.810,39033682,060.934.091.26 (1.06, 1.50)**
 p for trend    0.007
Model III
 HbA1c (%)
  < 626045921,261.142.781.00
  6–813,181372109,131.663.411.18 (0.89, 1.57)
  8–10898124573,772.113.321.05 (0.78, 1.41)
  ≥ 10536520443,072.944.741.47 (1.08, 2.00)*
 p for trend    0.02
 FPG-CV (%)
  ≤ 17.5996824883,751.32.961.00
  17.5–34.8993830182,597.883.641.17 (0.99, 1.39)
  > 34.810,22533180,888.674.091.24 (1.04, 1.47)*
 p for trend    0.01
Model IV
 HbA1c (%)
  < 626455921,577.482.731.00
  6–813,469374111,541.733.351.18 (0.89, 1.56)
  8–10918324775,373.753.281.05 (0.78, 1.41)
  ≥ 10548221143,970.424.801.50 (1.11, 2.04)**
 p for trend    0.01
 FPG-CV (%)     
  ≤ 17.510,16724985,419.132.921.00
  17.5–34.810,15330584,359.173.621.18 (0.99, 1.39)
  > 34.810,45933782,685.084.081.25 (1.05, 1.48)*
 p for trend    0.009
Model V
 HbA1c (%)
  < 626465921,595.52.731.00
  6–813,470372111,547.163.331.17 (0.88, 1.54)
  8–10919324675,477.853.261.03 (0.77, 1.39)
  ≥ 10549821044,089.874.761.46 (1.08, 1.99)*
 p for trend    0.02
 FPG-CV (%)
  ≤ 17.510,19024885,621.372.901.00
  17.5–34.810,16030484,395.443.601.18 (1.00, 1.40)
  > 34.810,45733582,693.584.051.25 (1.05, 1.48)*
 p for trend    0.008
Model VI
 HbA1c (%)
  < 625005620,470.22.741.00
  6–812,803352106,329.253.311.15 (0.86, 1.54)
  8–10871623971,749.683.331.06 (0.78, 1.43)
  ≥ 10518519741,763.284.721.46 (1.06, 2.00)*
 p for trend    0.02
 FPG-CV (%)     
  ≤ 17.5973423581,922.22.871.00
  17.5–34.8965729380,391.773.641.21 (1.02, 1.44)*
  > 34.8981331677,998.434.051.27 (1.07, 1.52)**
 p for trend    0.006
  1. Multivariate-adjusted for age, gender, alcohol consumption, smoking, diabetes duration, type of hypoglycemic medication, hypertension medication, obesity cardiovascular risk factors, stroke, coronary artery disease, cancer, congestive heart failure, hyperlipidemia, atrial fibrillation, hypertension, chronic hepatitis, hypoglycemia and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease
  2. Model I: persons with HHNK being excluded (N = 527)
  3. Model II: persons with DKA being excluded (N = 311)
  4. Model III: persons with myocardial infarction being excluded (N = 801)
  5. Model IV: persons with atrial fibrillation being excluded (N = 153)
  6. Model V: persons with hypoglycemia being excluded (N = 125)
  7. Model VI: persons with HHNK, DKA, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation and hypoglycemia being excluded (N = 1728)
  8. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001