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Table 2 Baseline characteristics based on HbA1c level and FPG-CV in patients with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the National Diabetes Care Management Program, Taiwan (n = 30,932)

From: Fasting plasma glucose variability and HbA1c are associated with peripheral artery disease risk in type 2 diabetes

VariablesHbA1c (%)FPG-CV (%)p-value
< 6.0 (N = 2663)6.0–8.0 (N = 13,535)8.0–10.0 (N = 9229)≥ 10.0 (N = 5505)p-value≤ 17.5 (N = 10,214)17.5–34.8 (N = 10,199)> 34.8 (N = 10,519)
Sociodemographic factors
 Male, n (%)1496 (56.18)6406 (47.33)3959 (42.9)2568 (46.65)< 0.0014880 (47.78)4645 (45.54)4904 (46.62)0.006
 Age (years), mean (SD)62.84 (11.93)62.11 (11.02)60.52 (10.85)58.27 (11.03)< 0.00161.07 (11.13)61.04 (11.03)60.93 (11.29)0.64
Lifestyle behaviors, n (%)
 Smoking377 (14.16)1897 (14.02)1394 (15.1)992 (18.02)< 0.0011407 (13.78)1479 (14.50)1774 (16.86)< 0.001
 Alcohol drinking255 (9.58)1133 (8.37)730 (7.91)467 (8.48)0.05858 (8.4)818 (8.02)909 (8.64)0.27
Diabetes-related variables
 Duration of diabetes (years), mean (SD)5.00 (5.98)6.60 (6.70)7.69 (7.01)6.84 (6.69)< 0.0016.13 (6.32)7.01 (6.78)7.35 (7.13)< 0.001
 Type of hypoglycemic drug use, n (%)    < 0.001   < 0.001
  No medication104 (3.91)180 (1.33)57 (0.62)29 (0.53) 177 (1.73)101 (0.99)92 (0.87) 
  One oral hypoglycemic drug991 (37.21)2993 (22.11)866 (9.38)397 (7.21) 2473 (24.21)1566 (15.35)1208 (11.48) 
  Two oral hypoglycemic drugs1135 (42.62)6412 (47.37)3640 (39.44)1702 (30.92) 4520 (44.25)4441 (43.54)3928 (37.34) 
  Three oral hypoglycemic drugs234 (8.79)2086 (15.41)2114 (22.91)1278 (23.22) 1663 (16.28)2044 (20.04)2005 (19.06) 
  > 3 oral hypoglycemic drugs40 (1.50)485 (3.58)635 (6.88)474 (8.61) 423 (4.14)587 (5.76)624 (5.93) 
  Insulin55 (2.07)327 (2.42)332 (3.6)189 (3.43) 175 (1.71)237 (2.32)491 (4.67) 
  Insulin+ oral hypoglycemic drug104 (3.91)1052 (7.77)1585 (17.17)1436 (26.09) 783 (7.67)1223 (11.99)2171 (20.64) 
 HbA1c (%), mean (SD)5.47 (0.45)6.99 (0.55)8.83 (0.57)11.43 (1.28)< 0.0017.69 (1.73)8.12 (1.80)8.76 (2.13)< 0.001
 FPG-CV (%),mean (SD)26.29 (23.24)27.83 (23.21)33.92 (25.26)43.14 (31.76)< 0.00110.15 (4.72)25.41 (4.90)60.30 (25.79)< 0.001
Drug-related variables, n (%)
 Hypertension drug treatment1063 (39.92)5572 (41.17)3610 (39.12)1742 (31.64)< 0.0014005 (39.21)3960 (38.83)4022 (38.24)0.35
Comorbidity, n (%)
 Obesity (BMI ≥ 27)961 (36.09)5066 (37.43)3439 (37.26)1765 (32.06)< 0.0013796 (37.16)3756 (36.83)3679 (34.97)0.002
 CAD226 (8.49)1241 (9.17)839 (9.09)396 (7.19)< 0.001884 (8.65)906 (8.88)912 (8.67)0.81
 Stroke169 (6.35)654 (4.83)497 (5.39)251 (4.56)0.002432 (4.23)516 (5.06)623 (5.92)< 0.001
 CHF83 (3.12)375 (2.77)227 (2.46)119 (2.16)0.03240 (2.35)280 (2.75)284 (2.70)0.15
 Cancer56 (2.10)280 (2.07)216 (2.34)97 (1.76)0.13191 (1.87)206 (2.02)252 (2.40)0.02
 Hyperlipidemia627 (23.54)3592 (26.54)2414 (26.16)1208 (21.94)< 0.0012738 (26.81)2619 (25.68)2484 (23.61)< 0.001
 Hypertension1282 (48.14)6565 (48.50)4296 (46.55)1990 (36.15)< 0.0014545 (44.5)4769 (46.76)4819 (45.81)0.005
 Atrial fibrillation18 (0.68)66 (0.49)46 (0.50)23 (0.42)0.4847 (0.46)46 (0.45)60 (0.57)0.39
 Chronic hepatitis268 (10.06)1332 (9.84)899 (9.74)479 (8.70)0.08941 (9.21)992 (9.73)1045 (9.93)0.19
 COPD138 (5.18)621 (4.59)427 (4.63)221 (4.01)0.10397 (3.89)468 (4.59)542 (5.15)< 0.001
 Hypoglycemia17 (0.64)65 (0.48)36 (0.39)7 (0.13)0.00124 (0.23)39 (0.38)62 (0.59)< 0.001
Cardiovascular risk factors, n (%)
 SBP ≥ 130/DBP ≥ 85 (mmHg)1811 (68.01)9480 (70.04)6459 (69.99)3587 (65.16)< 0.0017056 (69.08)7044 (69.07)7237 (68.80)0.88
 TG ≥ 150 (mg/dL)934 (35.07)5460 (40.34)4319 (46.8)2759 (50.12)< 0.0014166 (40.79)4390 (43.04)4916 (46.73)< 0.001
 HDL: female < 50; male < 40 (mg/dL)1315 (49.38)7036 (51.98)4955 (53.69)2737 (49.72)< 0.0015178 (50.7)5358 (52.53)5507 (52.35)0.01
 LDL ≥ 100 (mg/dL)1688 (63.39)9228 (68.18)6521 (70.66)4110 (74.66)< 0.0017202 (70.51)7056 (69.18)7289 (69.29)0.07
 eGFR < 60 (mL/min/1.73 m2)827 (31.06)3858 (28.5)2333 (25.28)1189 (21.6)< 0.0012340 (22.91)2661 (26.09)3206 (30.48)< 0.001
  1. Differences in continuous variables tested by ANOVA. Differences in categorical variables tested by chi-square or Fisher’s exact test
  2. CHF congestive heart failure, CAD coronary artery disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HDL high-density lipoprotein, TG triglyceride, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, LDL low-density lipoprotein