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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to peripheral vascular disease status in persons with type 2 diabetes enrolled in the National Diabetes Care Management Program, Taiwan (n = 30,932)

From: Fasting plasma glucose variability and HbA1c are associated with peripheral artery disease risk in type 2 diabetes

VariablesPeripheral vascular diseasep value
No (N = 30,038)Yes (N = 894)
Socio-demographic factors
 Male, n (%)14,008 (46.63)421 (47.09)0.81
 Age (years), mean (SD)60.99 (11.16)61.73 (10.87)0.05
Lifestyle behaviors, n (%)
 Smoking4517 (15.04)143 (16.00)0.46
 Alcohol drinking2518 (8.38)67 (7.49)0.38
Diabetes-related variables
 Duration of diabetes (years), mean (SD)6.80 (6.75)7.97 (7.41)< 0.001
 Type of hypoglycemic drug use, n (%)0.006
  No medication365 (1.22)5 (0.56) 
  One oral hypoglycemic drug5134 (17.09)113 (12.64) 
  Two oral hypoglycemic drugs12,536 (41.73)353 (39.49) 
  Three oral hypoglycemic drugs5537 (18.43)175 (19.57) 
  > 3 oral hypoglycemic drugs1575 (5.24)59 (6.60) 
  Insulin885 (2.95)18 (2.01) 
  Insulin+ oral hypoglycemic drug4006 (13.34)171 (19.13) 
Drug-related variables, n (%)
 Hypertension drug treatment11,671 (38.85)316 (35.35)0.04
Comorbidity, n (%)
 Obesity (BMI ≥ 27)10,927 (36.38)304 (34.00)0.16
 CAD2603 (8.67)99 (11.07)0.01
 Stroke1519 (5.06)52 (5.82)0.35
 CHF785 (2.61)19 (2.13)0.43
 Cancer630 (2.10)19 (2.13)1.00
 Hyperlipidemia7621 (25.37)220 (24.61)0.63
 Hypertension13,736 (45.73)397 (44.41)0.45
 Atrial fibrillation150 (0.50)3 (0.34)0.81
 Chronic hepatitis2900 (9.65)78 (8.72)0.38
 COPD1365 (4.54)42 (4.70)0.89
 Hypoglycemia118 (0.39)7 (0.78)0.10
 Albuminuria297 (0.99)6 (0.67)0.44
 Retinopathy583 (1.94)31 (3.47)0.002
Cardiovascular risk factors, n (%)
 SBP ≥ 130/DBP ≥85 (mmHg)20,730 (69.01)607 (67.90)0.50
 TG ≥ 150 (mg/dL)13,075 (43.53)397 (44.41)0.63
 HDL: female < 50; male < 40 (mg/dL)15,595 (51.92)448 (50.11)0.30
 LDL ≥ 100 (mg/dL)20,929 (69.68)618 (69.13)0.75
 eGFR < 60 (mL/min/1.73 m2)7967 (26.52)240 (26.85)0.86
  1. Differences in continuous variables were tested using the student’s t-test. Differences in categorical variables were tested using the Chi-square test or Fisher’s exact test
  2. CHF congestive heart failure, CAD coronary artery disease, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, HDL high-density lipoprotein, TG triglyceride, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, LDL low-density lipoprotein