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Table 2 Hazard ratios of variability of fasting glucose and HbA1c for risk on insulin initiation, diabetes-related complications

From: Visit-to-visit variability of glycemia and vascular complications: the Hoorn Diabetes Care System cohort

 Fasting glucose CVHbA1c–CV
BaseAdjustedBaseAdjusted
HR (95% CI)P-valuePtrendHR (95% CI)P-valuePtrendHR (95% CI)P-valuePtrendHR (95% CI)P-valuePtrend
Insulin initiation,
N = 3955, events = 1116
N = 3955, events = 1116
 Q21.07 [0.80–1.43]0.645.23·10−671.00 [0.75–1.33]0.983.31·10−441.57 [1.17–2.10]2.90·10−32.31·10−171.52 [1.13–2.04]5.38·10−34.00·10−11
 Q31.56 [1.20–2.03]9.81·10−4 1.47 [1.13–1.91]4.50·10−3 1.84 [1.39–2.44]2.51·10−5 1.71 [1.29–2.28]2.12·10−4 
 Q42.43 [1.90–3.12]2.54·10−12 2.10 [1.64–2.70]5.70·10−9 2.53 [1.93–3.33]2.37·10−11 2.39 [1.81–3.14]5.31·10−10 
 Q54.38 [3.44–5.59]8.69·10−33 3.33 [2.61–4.27]8.43·10−22 2.88 [2.19–3.78]2.76·10−14 2.45 [1.86–3.22]2.00·10−10 
Retinopathy
N = 3893, events = 182
N = 3898, events = 182
 Q21.54 [0.75–3.17]0.242.12·10−91.37 [0.67–2.82]0.391.08·10−30.77 [0.39–1.52]0.460.150.73 [0.37–1.44]0.360.80
 Q31.82 [0.91–3.65]0.09 1.56 [0.78–3.14]0.21 1.41 [0.78–2.55]0.26 1.24 [0.68–2.25]0.48 
 Q43.08 [1.61–5.89]6.85·10−4 2.35 [1.22–4.51]0.01 1.53 [0.86–2.73]0.14 1.28 [0.71–2.29]0.41 
 Q54.52 [2.39–8.57]3.77·10−6 2.59 [1.34–5.01]4.56·10−3 1.41 [0.79–2.52]0.25 1.06 [0.59–1.92]0.84 
eGFR stage
N = 3959, events = 503
N = 3965, events = 507 
 Q20.97 [0.73–1.29]0.810.030.95 [0.71–1.27]0.730.281.20 [0.90–1.61]0.220.391.23 [0.92–1.66]0.160.45
 Q31.07 [0.79–1.44]0.66 1.06 [0.78–1.43]0.72 1.04 [0.77–1.41]0.78 1.04 [0.77–1.40]0.80 
 Q41.03 [0.77–1.39]0.82 0.91 [0.68–1.23]0.55 1.09 [0.81–1.48]0.56 1.16 [0.86–1.57]0.34 
 Q51.31 [0.98–1.76]0.07 1.16 [0.85–1.58]0.35 1.21 [0.89–1.66]0.23 1.20 [0.87–1.65]0.26 
CKD stage
N = 2688, events = 802
N = 2694, events = 806
 Q20.92 [0.72–1.16]0.465.52·10−30.92 [0.72–1.16]0.460.051.08 [0.85–1.37]0.510.611.10 [0.87–1.39]0.420.73
 Q30.92 [0.72–1.17]0.50 0.92 [0.72–1.17]0.50 0.90 [0.71–1.15]0.41 0.88 [0.69–1.11]0.28 
 Q41.05 [0.83–1.32]0.70 1.05 [0.83–1.32]0.70 0.96 [0.75–1.22]0.73 0.95 [0.74–1.22]0.68 
 Q51.23 [0.97–1.55]0.08 1.23 [0.97–1.55]0.08 1.07 [0.84–1.37]0.58 1.05 [0.82–1.35]0.69 
Microalbuminuria
(N = 3949, events = 1448)
N = 3953, events = 1452
 Q21.25 [1.04–1.50]0.014.23·10−71.20 [1.00–1.44]0.050.011.04 [0.87–1.25]0.651.43·10−41.01 [0.84–1.21]0.940.01
 Q31.39 [1.16–1.67]3.33·10−4 1.32 [1.10–1.58]2.54·10−3 1.15 [0.96–1.37]0.13 1.09 [0.91–1.31]0.33 
 Q41.53 [1.28–1.83]3.43·10−6 1.37 [1.15–1.65]6.05·10−4 1.31 [1.09–1.56]3.40·10−3 1.23 [1.03–1.47]0.02 
 Q51.63 [1.36–1.96]1.33·10−7 1.36 [1.13–1.65]1.51·10−3 1.38 [1.14–1.66]7.11·10−4 1.23 [1.02–1.49]0.03 
Macroalbuminuria
N = 3949, events = 250
N = 3953, events = 251
 Q21.32 [0.80–2.17]0.282.98·10−71.28 [0.77–2.12]0.346.56·10−41.42 [0.89–2.25]0.140.121.42 [0.89–2.27]0.140.32
 Q31.78 [1.09–2.89]0.02 1.69 [1.03–2.75]0.04 0.97 [0.59–1.59]0.91 0.95 [0.58–1.57]0.85 
 Q41.97 [1.22–3.18]0.01 1.79 [1.10–2.91]0.02 1.35 [0.85–2.15]0.21 1.29 [0.80–2.07]0.29 
 Q52.89 [1.82–4.60]7.40·10−6 2.26 [1.39–3.70]1.11·10−3 1.49 [0.93–2.40]0.10 1.36 [0.84–2.21]0.21 
Macrovascular complications
N = 3437, events = 479
N = 3442, events = 480
 Q21.15 [0.83–1.58]0.401.56·10−31.14 [0.83–1.57]0.413.96·10−30.97 [0.70–1.34]0.840.020.97 [0.70–1.34]0.840.04
 Q31.41 [1.03–1.93]0.03 1.39 [1.01–1.91]0.04 1.27 [0.94–1.73]0.12 1.27 [0.94–1.73]0.12 
 Q41.43 [1.04–1.95]0.03 1.41 [1.02–1.94]0.04 1.27 [0.93–1.73]0.13 1.27 [0.93–1.73]0.13 
 Q51.64 [1.20–2.24]2.10·10−3 1.62 [1.16–2.26]4.28·10−3 1.39 [1.01–1.91]0.05 1.39 [1.01–1.91]0.05 
All–cause mortality
N = 3959, events = 691
N = 3965, events = 696
 Q21.00 [0.77–1.31]0.997.31·10−70.99 [0.76–1.29]0.941.03·10−50.93 [0.71–1.21]0.582.34·10−40.92 [0.71–1.20]0.566.87·10−4
 Q31.35 [1.04–1.77]0.03 1.34 [1.03–1.75]0.03 0.94 [0.73–1.22]0.66 0.94 [0.73–1.22]0.65 
 Q41.13 [0.86–1.48]0.37 1.11 [0.85–1.46]0.44 1.06 [0.82–1.36]0.65 1.05 [0.82–1.36]0.69 
 Q51.74 [1.34–2.24]2.43·10−5 1.69 [1.29–2.22]1.34·10−4 1.41 [1.10–1.82]7.70·10−3 1.38 [1.07–1.80]0.01 
  1. Base model adjusted for sex, age at diagnosis and BMI and stratified by fasting glucose or HbA1c tertiles. Adjusted model includes sex, BMI, HDL, age at diagnosis, triglycerides, HbA1c at baseline, oral glucose lowering drugs, insulin use (for complication models) and eGFR (kidney function-related models) stratified by tertiles of glucose or HbA1c