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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of patients

From: Association of glycemic variability with left ventricular diastolic function in type 2 diabetes mellitus

VariablesAll patients (n = 100)
Clinical characteristics
 Age, years60 ± 14
 Gender (female), n (%)45 (45)
 DM duration, years10 (0.1–42)
 Body weight, kg67 ± 16
 BSA, m21.70 ± 0.22
 Systolic blood pressure, mmHg129 ± 19
 Heart rate, bpm74 ± 10
 BUN, mg/dL15.6 ± 5.7
 Creatinine, mg/dL0.86 ± 0.43
 eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m273.4 ± 25.4
 HbA1c, %8.5 ± 1.9
Comorbidities, n (%)
 Hypertension58 (58)
 Dyslipidemia63 (63)
Anti-hypertensive drugs, n (%)
 Calcium channel blockers38 (38)
 ACE inhibitor/ARB54 (54)
 Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist1 (1)
Anti-diabetic drugs, n (%)
 DPP-4 inhibitor51 (51)
 GLP-1 RA11 (11)
 SU28 (28)
 α-GI23 (23)
 Thiazalidine8 (8)
 Metformin57 (57)
 SGLT2 inhibitor3 (3)
Echocardiographic parameters
 LV end-diastolic volume, mL76.0 ± 22.0
 LV end-systolic volume, mL26.8 ± 10.7
 LVEF, %65.6 ± 4.9
 LVMI, g/m280.0 ± 19.0
 LAVI, mL/m230.1 ± 8.0
 e’, cm/s6.05 ± 1.67
 E/e’10.5 ± 3.4
Trans-mitral flow
 E, cm/s59.4 ± 13.7
 DcT, msec207 ± 53
 E/A0.8 ± 0.2
Pulmonary venous flow
 S, cm/s65.4 ± 16.1
 D, cm/s41.3 ± 8.0
 S/D1.6 ± 0.4
 A, cm/s38.2 ± 20.0
  1. Values are mean ± SD for normally distributed data and median and interquartile range for non-normally distributed data, or n (%). Assessment of pulmonary venous flow was available in 90 patients
  2. DM diabetes mellitus, BSA body surface area, BUN blood urea nitrogen, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, ACE angiotensin-converting enzyme, ARB angiotensin II receptor blocker, DPP-4 Dipeptidyl Peptidase-4, GLP-1 RA glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors agonists, SU Sulfonylureas, α-GI α-glucosidase inhibitors, SGLT2 Sodium glucose cotransporter type 2, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, LVMI left ventricular mass index, LAVI left atrial volume index, e’ spectral pulsed-wave Doppler-derived early diastolic velocity from the septal mitral annulus, E peak early diastolic mitral flow velocity, DcT E wave deceleration time, E/A peak early and late diastolic mitral flow velocity ratio, S peak systolic velocity of pulmonary venous flow, D peak diastolic velocity of pulmonary venous flow, A peak velocity of pulmonary venous flow during atrial systole