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Table 3 In-hospital mortality of patients with and without T2DM hospitalized with infective endocarditis in Spain from 2001 to 2015 according to study covariates, and hospital outcomes before and after propensity score matching

From: Infective endocarditis according to type 2 diabetes mellitus status: an observational study in Spain, 2001–2015

  In-hospital mortality before matching In-hospital mortality after matching
T2DM Non T2DM p value T2DM Non T2DM p value
Time period, n (%)
 2001–2003 87 (25.2) 431 (21.4) 0.109 87 (25.2) 95 (25.6) 0.995
 2004–2006 101 (20.8) 397 (18.7) 0.282 101 (20.8) 92 (20.2) 0.818
 2007–2009 135 (22.4) 439 (19.1) 0.067 135 (22.4) 112 (19.4) 0.215
 2010–2012 209 (21.7) 638 (20.2) 0.292 209 (21.7) 194 (20.9) 0.663
 2013–2015 182 (17.5) 657 (18.4) 0.516 182 (17.5) 189 (17.1) 0.809
Sex, n (%)
 Male 414 (18.9) 1592 (18.0) 0.33 414 (18.9) 405 (18.6) 0.844
 Female 300 (24.2) 970 (22.4) 0.192 300 (24.2) 277 (22.0) 0.186
Age, mean (SD) 73.2 (9.7) 71.5 (11.4) < 0.001 73.2 (9.7) 72.9 (10.9) 0.540
Age groups, n (%)
 40–66 years old 150 (14.6) 754 (13.9) 0.555 150 (14.6) 154 (14.4) 0.933
 67–75 years old 228 (19.8) 696 (19.6) 0.91 228 (19.8) 194 (19.1) 0.706
 ≥ 76 years old 336 (26.8) 1112 (26.4) 0.791 336 (26.8) 334 (24.7) 0.206
CCI, mean (SD) 1.3 (0.7) 1.2 (0.8) 0.001 1.3 (0.7) 1.3 (0.7) 0.484
Prosthetic valve carriers, n (%) 57 (17.1) 213 (17.5) 0.884 57 (17.1) 56 (18.3) 0.695
Previous mitral valve disease, n (%) 190 (20.8) 723 (18.2) 0.067 190 (20.8) 180 (19.8) 0.593
Previous aortic valve disease, n (%) 184 (21.2) 730 (18.8) 0.111 184 (21.2) 161 (19.0) 0.269
Congestive heart failure, n (%) 274 (28.2) 1108 (30.2) 0.218 274 (28.2) 284 (30.4) 0.295
Septic arterial embolism, n (%) 9 (23.1) 45 (27.4) 0.58 9 (23.1) 10 (21.7) 0.883
Dementia, n (%) 18 (29.5) 46 (30.1) 0.936 18 (29.5) 16 (28.6) 0.911
Acute renal disease, n (%) 241 (39.1) 914 (37.6) 0.499 241 (39.1) 224 (37.5) 0.566
Chronic renal disease, n (%) 161 (27.2) 354 (26.6) 0.798 161 (27.2) 135 (25.2) 0.444
Ischemic heart disease, n (%) 167 (26.6) 338 (23.0) 0.078 167 (26.6) 143 (23.4) 0.190
COPD, n (%) 129 (21.4) 463 (21.4) 0.974 129 (21.4) 138 (21.5) 0.989
Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 176 (20.4) 662 (22.7) 0.152 176 (20.4) 201 (23.2) 0.160
Shock, n (%) 169 (70.7) 727 (66.2) 0.175 169 (70.7) 157 (71.0) 0.938
Periannular complications/atrioventricular block, n (%) 31 (24.0) 148 (24.7) 0.879 31 (24.0) 38 (23.0) 0.841
Heart valve surgery, n (%) 108 (22.6) 622 (23.7) 0.6 108 (22.6) 149 (25.0) 0.341
Dialysis, n (%) 115 (46.4) 409 (53.8) 0.044 115 (46.4) 94 (46.3) 0.989
Pacemaker implantation, n (%) 16 (18.0) 51 (14.3) 0.39 16 (18.0) 11 (12.8) 0.344
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 204 (49.8) 883 (49.8) 0.995 204 (49.8) 213 (51.7) 0.577
Coagulase-negative staphylococci, n (%) 88 (20.0) 303 (20.7) 0.73 88 (20.0) 79 (19.8) 0.955
Staphylococcus aureus, n (%) 142 (28.2) 476 (28.3) 0.974 142 (28.2) 125 (27.7) 0.858
Streptococci, n (%) 81 (12.5) 276 (9.5) 0.024 81 (12.5) 76 (10.2) 0.169
Enterococci, n (%) 96 (17.2) 285 (15.1) 0.223 96 (17.2) 72 (14.8) 0.276
Streptococcus pneumoniae, n (%) 1 (6.7) 9 (15.5) 0.389 1 (6.7) 2 (15.4) 0.469
Anaerobes, n (%) 2 (9.5) 9 (12.7) 0.697 2 (9.5) 3 (15.8) 0.555
Gram-negative bacilli, n (%) 50 (18.9) 226 (22.3) 0.234 50 (18.9) 51 (19.6) 0.845
Candidiasis/aspergillosis, n (%) 2 (66.7) 14 (43.8) 0.459 2 (66.7) 6 (54.6) 0.708
Readmissions, n (%) 152 (22.1) 477 (22.8) 0.709 152 (22.1) 144 (22.8) 0.774
Length of hospital stay, mean (SD) 19.8 (19.2) 22.8 (23.9) 0.002 19.8 (19.2) 23.5 (24.2) 0.002
Cost, mean (SD) 14,856.9 (12,956.0) 18,334.8 (18,939.4) < 0.001 14,856.9 (12,956.0) 17,408.9 (18,431.4) 0.003
  1. T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, SD standard deviation, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease