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Table 3 In-hospital mortality of patients with and without T2DM hospitalized with infective endocarditis in Spain from 2001 to 2015 according to study covariates, and hospital outcomes before and after propensity score matching

From: Infective endocarditis according to type 2 diabetes mellitus status: an observational study in Spain, 2001–2015

 In-hospital mortality before matchingIn-hospital mortality after matching
T2DMNon T2DMp valueT2DMNon T2DMp value
Time period, n (%)
 2001–200387 (25.2)431 (21.4)0.10987 (25.2)95 (25.6)0.995
 2004–2006101 (20.8)397 (18.7)0.282101 (20.8)92 (20.2)0.818
 2007–2009135 (22.4)439 (19.1)0.067135 (22.4)112 (19.4)0.215
 2010–2012209 (21.7)638 (20.2)0.292209 (21.7)194 (20.9)0.663
 2013–2015182 (17.5)657 (18.4)0.516182 (17.5)189 (17.1)0.809
Sex, n (%)
 Male414 (18.9)1592 (18.0)0.33414 (18.9)405 (18.6)0.844
 Female300 (24.2)970 (22.4)0.192300 (24.2)277 (22.0)0.186
Age, mean (SD)73.2 (9.7)71.5 (11.4)< 0.00173.2 (9.7)72.9 (10.9)0.540
Age groups, n (%)
 40–66 years old150 (14.6)754 (13.9)0.555150 (14.6)154 (14.4)0.933
 67–75 years old228 (19.8)696 (19.6)0.91228 (19.8)194 (19.1)0.706
 ≥ 76 years old336 (26.8)1112 (26.4)0.791336 (26.8)334 (24.7)0.206
CCI, mean (SD)1.3 (0.7)1.2 (0.8)0.0011.3 (0.7)1.3 (0.7)0.484
Prosthetic valve carriers, n (%)57 (17.1)213 (17.5)0.88457 (17.1)56 (18.3)0.695
Previous mitral valve disease, n (%)190 (20.8)723 (18.2)0.067190 (20.8)180 (19.8)0.593
Previous aortic valve disease, n (%)184 (21.2)730 (18.8)0.111184 (21.2)161 (19.0)0.269
Congestive heart failure, n (%)274 (28.2)1108 (30.2)0.218274 (28.2)284 (30.4)0.295
Septic arterial embolism, n (%)9 (23.1)45 (27.4)0.589 (23.1)10 (21.7)0.883
Dementia, n (%)18 (29.5)46 (30.1)0.93618 (29.5)16 (28.6)0.911
Acute renal disease, n (%)241 (39.1)914 (37.6)0.499241 (39.1)224 (37.5)0.566
Chronic renal disease, n (%)161 (27.2)354 (26.6)0.798161 (27.2)135 (25.2)0.444
Ischemic heart disease, n (%)167 (26.6)338 (23.0)0.078167 (26.6)143 (23.4)0.190
COPD, n (%)129 (21.4)463 (21.4)0.974129 (21.4)138 (21.5)0.989
Atrial fibrillation, n (%)176 (20.4)662 (22.7)0.152176 (20.4)201 (23.2)0.160
Shock, n (%)169 (70.7)727 (66.2)0.175169 (70.7)157 (71.0)0.938
Periannular complications/atrioventricular block, n (%)31 (24.0)148 (24.7)0.87931 (24.0)38 (23.0)0.841
Heart valve surgery, n (%)108 (22.6)622 (23.7)0.6108 (22.6)149 (25.0)0.341
Dialysis, n (%)115 (46.4)409 (53.8)0.044115 (46.4)94 (46.3)0.989
Pacemaker implantation, n (%)16 (18.0)51 (14.3)0.3916 (18.0)11 (12.8)0.344
Mechanical ventilation, n (%)204 (49.8)883 (49.8)0.995204 (49.8)213 (51.7)0.577
Coagulase-negative staphylococci, n (%)88 (20.0)303 (20.7)0.7388 (20.0)79 (19.8)0.955
Staphylococcus aureus, n (%)142 (28.2)476 (28.3)0.974142 (28.2)125 (27.7)0.858
Streptococci, n (%)81 (12.5)276 (9.5)0.02481 (12.5)76 (10.2)0.169
Enterococci, n (%)96 (17.2)285 (15.1)0.22396 (17.2)72 (14.8)0.276
Streptococcus pneumoniae, n (%)1 (6.7)9 (15.5)0.3891 (6.7)2 (15.4)0.469
Anaerobes, n (%)2 (9.5)9 (12.7)0.6972 (9.5)3 (15.8)0.555
Gram-negative bacilli, n (%)50 (18.9)226 (22.3)0.23450 (18.9)51 (19.6)0.845
Candidiasis/aspergillosis, n (%)2 (66.7)14 (43.8)0.4592 (66.7)6 (54.6)0.708
Readmissions, n (%)152 (22.1)477 (22.8)0.709152 (22.1)144 (22.8)0.774
Length of hospital stay, mean (SD)19.8 (19.2)22.8 (23.9)0.00219.8 (19.2)23.5 (24.2)0.002
Cost, mean (SD)14,856.9 (12,956.0)18,334.8 (18,939.4)< 0.00114,856.9 (12,956.0)17,408.9 (18,431.4)0.003
  1. T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, SD standard deviation, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease