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Table 2 Distribution of study covariates and hospital outcomes of patients with and without T2DM hospitalized with infective endocarditis in Spain from 2001 to 2015, before and after propensity score matching

From: Infective endocarditis according to type 2 diabetes mellitus status: an observational study in Spain, 2001–2015

  Before matching After matching
T2DM Non T2DM p value T2DM Non T2DM p value
Time period, n (%)
 2001–2003 345 (10.0) 2019 (15.3) < 0.001 345 (10.0) 371 (10.8) 0.277
 2004–2006 486 (14.1) 2128 (16.1) 486 (14.1) 456 (13.3)
 2007–2009 603 (17.6) 2304 (17.5) 603 (17.6) 576 (16.8)
 2010–2012 962 (28.0) 3165 (24.0) 962 (28.0) 928 (27.0)
 2013–2015 1040 (30.3) 3574 (27.1) 1040 (30.3) 1105 (32.2)
 Total 3436 (100) 13,190 (100) 3436 (100) 3436 (100)
Sex, n (%)
 Male 2196 (63.9) 8865 (67.2) < 0.001 2196 (63.9) 2175 (63.3) 0.599
 Female 1240 (36.1) 4325 (32.8) 1240 (36.1) 1261 (36.7)
Age, mean (SD) 70.8 (10.2) 67.9 (12.4) < 0.001 70.8 (10.2) 70.3 (11.8) 0.154
Age groups, n (%)
 40–66 years old 1030 (30.0) 5437 (41.2) < 0.001 1030 (30.0) 1067 (31.1) 0.001
 67–75 years old 1153 (33.6) 3547 (26.9) 1153 (33.6) 1014 (29.5)
 ≥ 76 years old 1253 (36.5) 4206 (31.9) 1253 (36.5) 1355 (39.4)
CCI, mean (SD) 1.1 (0.8) 0.9 (0.8) < 0.001 1.1 (0.8) 1.1 (0.8) 0.673
Prosthetic valve carriers, n (%) 333 (9.7) 1220 (9.3) 0.428 333 (9.7) 306 (8.9) 0.262
Previous mitral valve disease, n (%) 912 (26.5) 3971 (30.1) < 0.001 912 (26.5) 908 (26.4) 0.913
Previous aortic valve disease, n (%) 869 (25.3) 3880 (29.4) < 0.001 869 (25.3) 846 (24.6) 0.521
Congestive heart failure, n (%) 972 (28.3) 3666 (27.8) 0.565 972 (28.3) 935 (27.2) 0.319
Septic arterial embolism, n (%) 39 (1.1) 164 (1.2) 0.607 39 (1.1) 46 (1.3) 0.445
Dementia, n (%) 61 (1.8) 153 (1.2) 0.004 61 (1.8) 56 (1.6) 0.641
Acute renal disease, n (%) 617 (18.0) 2432 (18.4) 0.516 617 (18.0) 598 (17.4) 0.548
Chronic renal disease, n (%) 592 (17.2) 1329 (10.1) < 0.001 592 (17.2) 536 (15.6) 0.068
Ischemic heart disease, n (%) 627 (18.3) 1467 (11.1) < 0.001 627 (18.3) 611 (17.8) 0.616
COPD, n (%) 602 (17.5) 2167 (16.4) 0.126 602 (17.5) 643 (18.7) 0.199
Atrial fibrillation, n (%) 863 (25.1) 2916 (22.1) < 0.001 863 (25.1) 867 (25.2) 0.911
Shock, n (%) 239 (7.0) 1099 (8.3) 0.008 239 (7.0) 221 (6.4) 0.385
Periannular complications/atrioventricular block, n (%) 129 (3.8) 600 (4.6) 0.043 129 (3.8) 165 (4.8) 0.032
Heart valve surgery, n (%) 479 (13.9) 2630 (19.9) < 0.001 479 (13.9) 595 (17.3) < 0.001
Dialysis, n (%) 248 (7.2) 761 (5.8) < 0.001 248 (7.2) 203 (5.9) 0.028
Pacemaker implantation, n (%) 89 (2.6) 356 (2.7) 0.725 89 (2.6) 86 (2.5) 0.818
Mechanical ventilation, n (%) 410 (11.9) 1774 (13.5) 0.019 410 (11.9) 412 (12.0) 0.941
Coagulase-negative staphylococci, n (%) 441 (12.8) 1463 (11.1) 0.004 441 (12.8) 399 (11.6) 0.122
Staphylococcus aureus, n (%) 504 (14.7) 1685 (12.8) 0.003 504 (14.7) 452 (13.2) 0.070
Streptococci, n (%) 649 (18.9) 2897 (22.0) < 0.001 649 (18.9) 749 (21.8) 0.003
Enterococci, n (%) 557 (16.2) 1887 (14.3) 0.005 557 (16.2) 488 (14.2) 0.020
Streptococcus pneumoniae, n (%) 15 (0.4) 58 (0.4) 0.980 15 (0.4) 13 (0.4) 0.705
Anaerobes, n (%) 21 (0.6) 71 (0.5) 0.608 21 (0.6) 19 (0.6) 0.751
Gram-negative bacilli, n (%) 264 (7.7) 1012 (7.7) 0.983 264 (7.7) 260 (7.6) 0.856
Candidiasis/aspergillosis, n (%) 3 (0.1) 32 (0.2) 0.077 3 (0.1) 11 (0.3) 0.032
Readmissions, n (%) 687 (20.0) 2091 (15.9) < 0.001 687 (20.0) 632 (18.4) 0.092
Length of hospital stay, mean (SD) 27.17 (20.4) 27.51 (22.1) 0.405 27.17 (20.4) 27.43 (22.1) 0.616
In-hospital mortality, n (%) 714 (20.8) 2562 (19.4) 0.075 714 (20.8) 682 (19.9) 0.337
Cost, mean (SD) 13,230.4 (10,000.7) 14,452.0 (12,845.6) < 0.001 13,230.4 (10,000.7) 14,045.3 (12,713.2) 0.003
  1. T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, SD standard deviation, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease