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Table 2 Distribution of study covariates and hospital outcomes of patients with and without T2DM hospitalized with infective endocarditis in Spain from 2001 to 2015, before and after propensity score matching

From: Infective endocarditis according to type 2 diabetes mellitus status: an observational study in Spain, 2001–2015

 Before matchingAfter matching
T2DMNon T2DMp valueT2DMNon T2DMp value
Time period, n (%)
 2001–2003345 (10.0)2019 (15.3)< 0.001345 (10.0)371 (10.8)0.277
 2004–2006486 (14.1)2128 (16.1)486 (14.1)456 (13.3)
 2007–2009603 (17.6)2304 (17.5)603 (17.6)576 (16.8)
 2010–2012962 (28.0)3165 (24.0)962 (28.0)928 (27.0)
 2013–20151040 (30.3)3574 (27.1)1040 (30.3)1105 (32.2)
 Total3436 (100)13,190 (100)3436 (100)3436 (100)
Sex, n (%)
 Male2196 (63.9)8865 (67.2)< 0.0012196 (63.9)2175 (63.3)0.599
 Female1240 (36.1)4325 (32.8)1240 (36.1)1261 (36.7)
Age, mean (SD)70.8 (10.2)67.9 (12.4)< 0.00170.8 (10.2)70.3 (11.8)0.154
Age groups, n (%)
 40–66 years old1030 (30.0)5437 (41.2)< 0.0011030 (30.0)1067 (31.1)0.001
 67–75 years old1153 (33.6)3547 (26.9)1153 (33.6)1014 (29.5)
 ≥ 76 years old1253 (36.5)4206 (31.9)1253 (36.5)1355 (39.4)
CCI, mean (SD)1.1 (0.8)0.9 (0.8)< 0.0011.1 (0.8)1.1 (0.8)0.673
Prosthetic valve carriers, n (%)333 (9.7)1220 (9.3)0.428333 (9.7)306 (8.9)0.262
Previous mitral valve disease, n (%)912 (26.5)3971 (30.1)< 0.001912 (26.5)908 (26.4)0.913
Previous aortic valve disease, n (%)869 (25.3)3880 (29.4)< 0.001869 (25.3)846 (24.6)0.521
Congestive heart failure, n (%)972 (28.3)3666 (27.8)0.565972 (28.3)935 (27.2)0.319
Septic arterial embolism, n (%)39 (1.1)164 (1.2)0.60739 (1.1)46 (1.3)0.445
Dementia, n (%)61 (1.8)153 (1.2)0.00461 (1.8)56 (1.6)0.641
Acute renal disease, n (%)617 (18.0)2432 (18.4)0.516617 (18.0)598 (17.4)0.548
Chronic renal disease, n (%)592 (17.2)1329 (10.1)< 0.001592 (17.2)536 (15.6)0.068
Ischemic heart disease, n (%)627 (18.3)1467 (11.1)< 0.001627 (18.3)611 (17.8)0.616
COPD, n (%)602 (17.5)2167 (16.4)0.126602 (17.5)643 (18.7)0.199
Atrial fibrillation, n (%)863 (25.1)2916 (22.1)< 0.001863 (25.1)867 (25.2)0.911
Shock, n (%)239 (7.0)1099 (8.3)0.008239 (7.0)221 (6.4)0.385
Periannular complications/atrioventricular block, n (%)129 (3.8)600 (4.6)0.043129 (3.8)165 (4.8)0.032
Heart valve surgery, n (%)479 (13.9)2630 (19.9)< 0.001479 (13.9)595 (17.3)< 0.001
Dialysis, n (%)248 (7.2)761 (5.8)< 0.001248 (7.2)203 (5.9)0.028
Pacemaker implantation, n (%)89 (2.6)356 (2.7)0.72589 (2.6)86 (2.5)0.818
Mechanical ventilation, n (%)410 (11.9)1774 (13.5)0.019410 (11.9)412 (12.0)0.941
Coagulase-negative staphylococci, n (%)441 (12.8)1463 (11.1)0.004441 (12.8)399 (11.6)0.122
Staphylococcus aureus, n (%)504 (14.7)1685 (12.8)0.003504 (14.7)452 (13.2)0.070
Streptococci, n (%)649 (18.9)2897 (22.0)< 0.001649 (18.9)749 (21.8)0.003
Enterococci, n (%)557 (16.2)1887 (14.3)0.005557 (16.2)488 (14.2)0.020
Streptococcus pneumoniae, n (%)15 (0.4)58 (0.4)0.98015 (0.4)13 (0.4)0.705
Anaerobes, n (%)21 (0.6)71 (0.5)0.60821 (0.6)19 (0.6)0.751
Gram-negative bacilli, n (%)264 (7.7)1012 (7.7)0.983264 (7.7)260 (7.6)0.856
Candidiasis/aspergillosis, n (%)3 (0.1)32 (0.2)0.0773 (0.1)11 (0.3)0.032
Readmissions, n (%)687 (20.0)2091 (15.9)< 0.001687 (20.0)632 (18.4)0.092
Length of hospital stay, mean (SD)27.17 (20.4)27.51 (22.1)0.40527.17 (20.4)27.43 (22.1)0.616
In-hospital mortality, n (%)714 (20.8)2562 (19.4)0.075714 (20.8)682 (19.9)0.337
Cost, mean (SD)13,230.4 (10,000.7)14,452.0 (12,845.6)< 0.00113,230.4 (10,000.7)14,045.3 (12,713.2)0.003
  1. T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, SD standard deviation, CCI Charlson Comorbidity Index, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease