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Table 1 Incidence, clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients hospitalized with infective endocarditis in Spain from 2001 to 2015 according to T2DM status

From: Infective endocarditis according to type 2 diabetes mellitus status: an observational study in Spain, 2001–2015

  T2DM 2001–2003 2004–2006 2007–2009 2010–2012 2013–2015 Total Trend
Number of endocarditis Yes 345 486 603 962 1040 3436 < 0.001
No 2019 2128 2304 3165 3574 13,190 < 0.001
Incidence per 100,000 per year* Yes 6.0 7.8 8.9 12.8 13.1 10.0 < 0.001
No 3.9 3.8 3.8 5.1 5.5 4.5 < 0.001
Age, mean (SD)* Yes 68.7 (9.8) 69.2 (9.9) 70.4 (9.9) 71.6 (10.2) 71.8 (10.3) 70.8 (10.2) < 0.001
No 66.2 (12.1) 66.0 (12.3) 67.4 (12.5) 69.0 (12.2) 69.4 (12.4) 67.9 (12.4) < 0.001
Female sex, n (%) Yes 130 (37.7) 193 (39.7) 233 (38.6) 348 (36.2) 336 (32.3) 1240 (36.1) 0.023
No 667 (33.0) 704 (33.1) 786 (34.1) 1037 (32.8) 1131 (31.7) 4325 (32.8) 0.393
Charlson Comorbidity Index, mean (SD)* Yes 1.0 (0.8) 1.0 (0.8) 1.0 (0.8) 1.1 (0.8) 1.1 (0.8) 1.1 (0.8) < 0.001
No 0.8 (0.8) 0.8 (0.8) 0.9 (0.8) 1.0 (0.8) 1.0 (0.8) 0.9 (0.8) < 0.001
Prosthetic valve carriers, n (%) Yes 27 (7.8) 41 (8.4) 57 (9.5) 106 (11.0) 102 (9.8) 333 (9.7) 0.375
No 170 (8.4) 191 (9.0) 205 (8.9) 294 (9.3) 360 (10.1) 1220 (9.3) 0.280
Previous mitral valve disease, n (%)* Yes 99 (28.7) 122 (25.1) 156 (25.9) 271 (28.2) 264 (25.4) 912 (26.5) 0.478
No 540 (26.8) 616 (29.0) 681 (29.6) 1034 (32.7) 1100 (30.8) 3971 (30.1) < 0.001
Previous aortic valve disease, n (%)* Yes 75 (21.7) 114 (23.5) 149 (24.7) 251 (26.1) 280 (26.9) 869 (25.3) 0.280
No 511 (25.3) 602 (28.3) 673 (29.2) 972 (30.7) 1122 (31.4) 3880 (29.4) < 0.001
Readmissions, n (%)* Yes 58 (16.8) 91 (18.7) 116 (19.2) 199 (20.7) 223 (21.4) 687 (20.0) 0.338
No 300 (14.9) 314 (14.8) 354 (15.4) 526 (16.6) 597 (16.7) 2091 (15.9) 0.128
Length of hospital stay, mean (SD) Yes 28.24 (20.9) 28.9 (21.4) 28.48 (20.4) 27.69 (21.0) 24.76 (18.9) 27.17 (20.4) < 0.001
No 28.33 (22.6) 27.87 (21.8) 28.25 (22.4) 27.18 (22.4) 26.66 (21.4) 27.51 (22.1) 0.018
In-hospital mortality, n (%) Yes 87 (25.2) 101 (20.8) 135 (22.4) 209 (21.7) 182 (17.5) 714 (20.8) 0.015
No 431 (21.4) 397 (18.7) 439 (19.1) 638 (20.2) 657 (18.4) 2562 (19.4) 0.053
Costs, mean (SD)* Yes 9137.6 (5486) 12,380.7 (8116.2) 14,928.4 (8646.3) 13,507.4 (11,465.3) 13,744.5 (10,822.8) 13,230.4 (10,000.7) < 0.001
No 10,171.7 (7450.2) 12,746.6 (8463.6) 16,366.4 (11,276.8) 16,588.5 (17,974.3) 14,759.3 (12,184.5) 14,452.0 (12,845.6) < 0.001
  1. T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, SD standard deviation
  2. *Denotes a p value < 0.05 for the difference when comparing total values between patients with and without T2DM (namely, the results in the “TOTAL” column). Trends for incidence were assessed using multivariable Poisson regression models adjusted by age and sex