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Table 1 Incidence, clinical characteristics and in-hospital outcomes of patients hospitalized with infective endocarditis in Spain from 2001 to 2015 according to T2DM status

From: Infective endocarditis according to type 2 diabetes mellitus status: an observational study in Spain, 2001–2015

 T2DM2001–20032004–20062007–20092010–20122013–2015TotalTrend
Number of endocarditisYes34548660396210403436< 0.001
No2019212823043165357413,190< 0.001
Incidence per 100,000 per year*Yes6.07.88.912.813.110.0< 0.001
No3.93.83.85.15.54.5< 0.001
Age, mean (SD)*Yes68.7 (9.8)69.2 (9.9)70.4 (9.9)71.6 (10.2)71.8 (10.3)70.8 (10.2)< 0.001
No66.2 (12.1)66.0 (12.3)67.4 (12.5)69.0 (12.2)69.4 (12.4)67.9 (12.4)< 0.001
Female sex, n (%)Yes130 (37.7)193 (39.7)233 (38.6)348 (36.2)336 (32.3)1240 (36.1)0.023
No667 (33.0)704 (33.1)786 (34.1)1037 (32.8)1131 (31.7)4325 (32.8)0.393
Charlson Comorbidity Index, mean (SD)*Yes1.0 (0.8)1.0 (0.8)1.0 (0.8)1.1 (0.8)1.1 (0.8)1.1 (0.8)< 0.001
No0.8 (0.8)0.8 (0.8)0.9 (0.8)1.0 (0.8)1.0 (0.8)0.9 (0.8)< 0.001
Prosthetic valve carriers, n (%)Yes27 (7.8)41 (8.4)57 (9.5)106 (11.0)102 (9.8)333 (9.7)0.375
No170 (8.4)191 (9.0)205 (8.9)294 (9.3)360 (10.1)1220 (9.3)0.280
Previous mitral valve disease, n (%)*Yes99 (28.7)122 (25.1)156 (25.9)271 (28.2)264 (25.4)912 (26.5)0.478
No540 (26.8)616 (29.0)681 (29.6)1034 (32.7)1100 (30.8)3971 (30.1)< 0.001
Previous aortic valve disease, n (%)*Yes75 (21.7)114 (23.5)149 (24.7)251 (26.1)280 (26.9)869 (25.3)0.280
No511 (25.3)602 (28.3)673 (29.2)972 (30.7)1122 (31.4)3880 (29.4)< 0.001
Readmissions, n (%)*Yes58 (16.8)91 (18.7)116 (19.2)199 (20.7)223 (21.4)687 (20.0)0.338
No300 (14.9)314 (14.8)354 (15.4)526 (16.6)597 (16.7)2091 (15.9)0.128
Length of hospital stay, mean (SD)Yes28.24 (20.9)28.9 (21.4)28.48 (20.4)27.69 (21.0)24.76 (18.9)27.17 (20.4)< 0.001
No28.33 (22.6)27.87 (21.8)28.25 (22.4)27.18 (22.4)26.66 (21.4)27.51 (22.1)0.018
In-hospital mortality, n (%)Yes87 (25.2)101 (20.8)135 (22.4)209 (21.7)182 (17.5)714 (20.8)0.015
No431 (21.4)397 (18.7)439 (19.1)638 (20.2)657 (18.4)2562 (19.4)0.053
Costs, mean (SD)*Yes9137.6 (5486)12,380.7 (8116.2)14,928.4 (8646.3)13,507.4 (11,465.3)13,744.5 (10,822.8)13,230.4 (10,000.7)< 0.001
No10,171.7 (7450.2)12,746.6 (8463.6)16,366.4 (11,276.8)16,588.5 (17,974.3)14,759.3 (12,184.5)14,452.0 (12,845.6)< 0.001
  1. T2DM type 2 diabetes mellitus, SD standard deviation
  2. *Denotes a p value < 0.05 for the difference when comparing total values between patients with and without T2DM (namely, the results in the “TOTAL” column). Trends for incidence were assessed using multivariable Poisson regression models adjusted by age and sex