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Table 3 Relationship between hypoglycemia and mortality in beta blocker subgroups

From: Effect of beta blocker use and type on hypoglycemia risk among hospitalized insulin requiring patients

 Non-recipients of beta blockers Carvedilol recipients Selective beta blocker recipients 
OR95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value OR 95% CI p-value 
Odds ratio for mortality in patients with vs. those without hypoglycemia (< 3.9 mmol/L) within 24 h of admission
 Unadjusted model 2.401.56–3.71 < 0.001 0.83 0.25–2.81 0.77 1.60 0.74–3.46 0.23 
 Adjusted model 2.101.15–3.86 0.016 0.79 0.15–4.10 0.78 1.67 0.54–5.16 0.37 
Odds ratio for mortality in patients with vs. those without hypoglycemia (< 3.9 mmol/L) overall 
 Unadjusted model 2.211.60–3.04 < 0.0001 1.18 0.54–2.60 0.68 2.17 1.08–4.37 0.03 
 Adjusted model 1.801.16–2.80 0.009 1.55 0.49–4.95 0.46 4.89 1.76–13.56 0.002 
Odds ratio for mortality in patients with vs. those without hypoglycemia (< 2.2 mmol/L) overall 
 Unadjusted model 4.632.52–8.52 < 0.00011.760.40–7.67 0.456.422.73–15.1< 0.0001
 Adjusted model 3.741.48–9.46 0.005 1.94 0.36–10.3 0.4410.63.27–34.3< 0.0001
  1. Adjusted model includes age, gender, race, body mass index*, surgery service, admission glucose*, admission creatinine*, hospital length of stay*, basal insulin, heart failure, cardiovascular service, statin, aspirin, ACE/ARB and hypoglycemia (< 70 mg/dL within 24 h, < 70 during entire hospitalization, or < 40 mg/dL during entire hospitalization. * log transformed values