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Table 1 Baseline characteristics by BB status

From: Effect of beta blocker use and type on hypoglycemia risk among hospitalized insulin requiring patients

 No BB
(N = 10,216) 
Carvedilol
(N = 1020) 
SBB
(N = 886) 
p-value
Age, years60 (15) 64 (13) 65 (13) < 0.0001 
Male, N (%)4986 (49) 381 (37) 383 (43) < 0.0001 
Race, N (%)   < 0.0001 
 Caucasian7422 (73) 628 (62) 689 (78) 
 African2293 (22) 357 (35) 174 (20) 
 Asian121 (1.2) 10 (1.0) 4 (0.45) 
 American Indian20 (0.20) 1 (0.10) 0 (0) 
 Middle Eastern28 (0.27) 2 (0.20) 2 (0.23) 
 Other332 (3.3) 22 (2.2) 17 (1.9) 
Body mass index, kg/m233.1 (9.4) 33.7 (9.6) 33.4 (9.6) 0.13 
Surgery service, N (%)2837 (28) 72 (7.1) 140 (16) < 0.0001 
Cardiac service, N (%)1330 (13)401 (39)352 (30)< 0.0001
Hemoglobin A1c,  %7.98 (2.53)
N = 1704
7.71 (2.14)
N = 186
7.78 (2.30)
N = 113
0.30
Admission creatinine, μmol/L1.40 (1.50) 2.24 (2.14) 1.63 (1.46) < 0.0001 
Hospital length of stay, days4 (3–7) 6 (4–10) 6 (4–11) < 0.0001 
Basal insulin at admission, N (%)500 (4.9) 272 (27) 292 (33) < 0.0001 
Heart failure, N (%)461 (4.5) 814 (80) 459 (52) < 0.0001 
Sulfonylurea/glinide25 (0.24)40 (3.9)31 (3.5)< 0.0001
Other glucose lowering agents (non-insulin, non-sulfonylurea/glinide)67 (0.66)95 (0.93)61 (6.9)< 0.0001
ACE inhibitor/ARB171 (1.7)515 (50)278 (31)< 0.0001
Statin340 (3.3)692 (68)395 (45)< 0.0001
Aspirin361 (3.5)698 (68)397 (45)<0.0001
Mean glucose (mmol/L)    
 Admission175 (95) 175 (92) 168 (87) 0.11 
 24 h167 (61) 167 (62) 165 (59) 0.75 
 72 h164 (47) 164 (47) 162 (46) 0.51 
Hypoglycemia, N (%)
 < 3.9 mmol/L (70 mg/dL), first 24 h497 (4.9) 138 (13.5) 151 (17) < 0.0001 
 < 3.9 mmol/L (70 mg/dL), during hospital stay1194 (12) 393 (38) 441 (50) < 0.0001 
 < 2.2 mmol/L, (40 mg/dL), during hospital stay132 (1.3) 47 (4.6) 43 (4.9) < 0.0001 
 Events < 3.9 mmol/L (70 mg/dL)/day during hospital stay0 (0.0)0 (0.17)0 (0.025)< 0.0001
Glucose coefficient of variation (%)
 24 h0.22 (0.13) 0.26 (0.15) 0.26 (0.15) < 0.0001 
 72 h0.24 (0.11) 0.29 (0.13) 0.28 (0.12) < 0.0001 
  1. Continuous variables that are normally distributed are reported as mean (standard deviation) and analyzed with the analysis of variance. Continuous variables that are not normally distributed are reported as median (interquartile range [IQR]) and analyzed using Wilcoxon Rank-sum. Dichotomous variables are presented using number (percentage) and analyzed using the Chi-square test
  2. BB beta blocker, SBB selective beta blocker