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Table 2 Serum biochemical, oxidative stress, and inflammation examination

From: Empagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, alleviates atrial remodeling and improves mitochondrial function in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

 Control group (n = 8)DM group (n = 8)low-EMPA group (n = 8)high-EMPA group (n = 8)p value
Glucose, mmol/L6.38 ± 0.9921.10 ± 6.71*13.81 ± 2.19**12.93 ± 3.39**< 0.001
Insulin, mIU/L44.66 ± 8.6684.66 ± 17.3870.83 ± 16.9369.50 ± 11.490.135
Creatinine, μmol/L56.50 ± 8.0055.14 ± 11.5151.10 ± 11.8456.83 ± 10.960.761
BUN, mmol/L7.99 ± 1.347.29 ± 1.586.57 ± 0.477.34 ± 2.050.348
TC, mmol/L1.36 ± 0.422.21 ± 0.33*1.73 ± 0.45**1.47 ± 0.31**0.003
Triglycerides, mmol/L0.57 ± 0.270.95 ± 0.32*0.72 ± 0.58**0.70 ± 0.40**0.041
LDL-C, mmol/L0.44 ± 0.140.61 ± 0.130.40 ± 0.380.48 ± 0.20.212
HDL-C, mmol/L0.96 ± 0.280.98 ± 0.120.91 ± 0.511.03 ± 0.220.932
SOD, U/mL113.09 ± 7.18103.31 ± 9.61*113.13 ± 3.60**114.36 ± 5.96**0.019
hs-CRP, pg/mL10.30 ± 0.9013.66 ± 2.44*11.61 ± 2.179.57 ± 0.15**0.002
MDA, nmol/mL9.22 ± 1.8412.06 ± 1.42*10.94 ± 2.319.81 ± 1.49**0.012
BNP, pg/mL1842.65 ± 444.342264.07 ± 514.072153.04 ± 545.661975.91 ± 230.970.239
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD
  2. TC total cholesterol, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, hs-CRP high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, MDA malondialdehyde, SOD superoxide dismutase, BNP brain natriuretic peptide
  3. * Compared with the control group, p < 0.05
  4. ** Compared with the DM group, p < 0.05