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Table 1 Echocardiographic and hemodynamic studies

From: Empagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, alleviates atrial remodeling and improves mitochondrial function in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

 Control group (n = 8)DM group (n = 8)Low-EMPA group (n = 8)High-EMPA group (n = 8)p value
LAD, mm4.12 ± 0.244.60 ± 0.44*4.44 ± 0.08*4.22 ± 0.14**0.006
IVST, mm1.62 ± 0.171.98 ± 0.14*1.84 ± 0.061.67 ± 0.44**0.021
LVPWT, mm1.60 ± 0.172.00 ± 0.17*1.80 ± 0.311.67 ± 0.38**0.028
LVEDD, mm7.39 ± 0.297.16 ± 0.387.47 ± 0.327.11 ± 0.220.530
LVESD, mm3.73 ± 0.364.07 ± 0.493.84 ± 0.493.99 ± 0.250.680
LVEF, %79.27 ± 3.8772.49 ± 6.9377.78 ± 8.6673.59 ± 3.670.381
FS, %49.50 ± 4.0843.09 ± 5.8748.33 ± 8.7543.85 ± 3.280.372
HR, beats per min308.75 ± 7.66311.87 ± 4.79312.00 ± 6.02310.86 ± 2.100.626
SBP, mmHg125.30 ± 12.95139.05 ± 14.41*138.80 ± 6.48*137.80 ± 4.19*0.037
DBP, mmHg75.71 ± 12.19102.09 ± 7.99*97.64 ± 6.46*96.11 ± 5.06*<0.001
MBP, mmHg91.06 ± 9.65114.45 ± 10.01*111.28 ± 6.11*110.84 ± 5.34*<0.001
LVEDP, mmHg7.78 ± 1.199.45 ± 1.33*8.66 ± 0.818.53 ± 0.680.028
+dp/dtmax, mmHg/m4448.00 ± 835.013698.00 ± 380.14*3695.25 ± 384.95*4198.00 ± 673.630.041
−dp/dtmax, mmHg/m− 2413.32 ± 276.74− 1538.32 ± 278.87*− 1592.07 ± 271.84*− 2004.70 ± 162.30**< 0.001
BW, kg0.58 ± 0.050.67 ± 0.07*0.62 ± 0.080.54 ± 0.06**0.018
Heart weight ratio (1/1000)3.24 ± 0.423.59 ± 0.75*3.35 ± 0.543.12 ± 0.65**0.451
  1. Values are expressed as mean ± SD. Heart weight ratio indicates the ratio of heart weight and body weight
  2. DM diabetes mellitus, LAD left atrial diameter, IVST interventricular septum, LVPWT left ventricular posterior wall, LVEDD left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, LVESD left ventricular end-systolic dimension, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, FS fraction shortening, HR heart rate, SBP systolic blood pressure, DBP diastolic blood pressure, MBP mean blood pressure, LVEDP left ventricular end diastolic pressure, +dp/dtmax maximal increasing rate of left intraventricular pressure, −dp/dtmax maximal decreasing rate of left intraventricular pressure, BW body weight
  3. * Compared with the control group, p < 0.05
  4. ** Compared with the DM group, p < 0.05