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Fig. 4 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Fig. 4

From: Empagliflozin, a sodium glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitor, alleviates atrial remodeling and improves mitochondrial function in high-fat diet/streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

Fig. 4

Electrophysiological measurements and atrial fibrillation (AF) induction rate. ac Left atrium effective refractory period (LAERP), right atrium effective refractory period (RAERP), interatrial conduction time (IACT), at basic cycle lengths of 150, 200 ms. d Atrial effective refractory period dispersion (AERPD) of the 4 groups. e The inducibility of AF in the four study groups. f Representative AF episodes induced by burst pacing. *Compared with the control group, p < 0.05; **compared with the diabetes mellitus (DM) group, p < 0.05. Each group included 5 rats. HLA high left atrium, HRA high right atrium, RV right ventricle

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