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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study cohort, both overall and according to microvascular complications burden

From: Microvascular complications burden (nephropathy, retinopathy and peripheral polyneuropathy) affects risk of major vascular events and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes: a 10-year follow-up study

  All patients (n = 774) No MC (n = 425) 1 MC (n = 250) 2 MC (n = 75) 3 MC (n = 24) p value
Men/women, n (%) 407/367 (52.6/47.4) 224/201 (52.7/47.3) 130/120 (52.0/48.0) 36/39 (48.0/52.0) 17/7 (70.8/29.2) 0.275
Age, years 40.2 ± 11.7 36.3 ± 10.1 43.0 ± 10.4*** 48.4 ± 13.0*** †† 55.7 ± 13.7*** ††† ‡ < 0.0001
Age at diabetes diagnosis, years 20.8 ± 10.9 23.2 ± 10.7 17.5 ± 10.0*** 17.7 ± 11.6*** 24.6 ± 8.9† ‡ < 0.0001
Duration of diabetes, years 19.4 ± 12.2 13.1 ± 9.4 25.5 ± 10.2*** 30.7 ± 11.2*** ††† 31.1 ± 12.9*** < 0.0001
BMI, kg/m2 24.8 ± 3.6 24.2 ± 3.3 25.3 ± 3.7*** 26.2 ± 3.7*** 26.8 ± 3.9** < 0.0001
WHR 0.921 ± 0.063 0.914 ± 0.056 0.924 ± 0.069 0.943 ± 0.070** 0.945 ± 0.081 < 0.0001
Smoking habits (non-smokers, current smokers) (n. 759), n (%) 534/225 (70.4/29.6) 295/121 (70.9/29.1) 168/78 (68.3/31.7) 53/21 (71.6/28.4) 18/5 (78.3/21.7) 0.727
Fasting glucose, mmol/L 9.44 ± 4.56 9.10 ± 4.23 9.44 ± 4.78 10.74 ± 5.18* 11.44 ± 4.80 0.005
HbA1c,  % (mmol/mol) 7.83 ± 1.18 (62.1 ± 12.9) 7.70 ± 1.19 (60.6 ± 13.0) 7.85 ± 1.11 (62.3 ± 12.2) 8.25 ± 1.10** (66.7 ± 12.0) 8.60 ± 1.30** (70.4 ± 14.2) < 0.0001
Systolic BP, mmHg 127 ± 18 122 ± 15 130 ± 18*** 136 ± 20*** 150 ± 16*** ††† ‡‡ < 0.0001
Diastolic BP, mmHg 73 ± 9 72 ± 8 75 ± 9** 74 ± 10 79 ± 11** < 0.0001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L 4.84 ± 0.88 4.72 ± 0.85 5.00 ± 0.90** 5.08 ± 0.85* 4.68 ± 1.07 < 0.0001
LDL cholesterol, mmol/L 3.01 ± 0.76 2.94 ± 0.76 3.11 ± 0.74* 3.12 ± 0.73 2.92 ± 0.94 0.019
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L
 Men 1.45 (1.24–1.71) 1.44 (1.22–1.71) 1.53 (1.29–1.71) 1.49 (1.32–1.68) 1.40 (1.06–1.73) 0.644
 Women 1.74 (1.48–2.07) 1.71 (1.42–1.99) 1.79 (1.51–2.15) 1.79 (1.58–2.15) 1.76 (1.37–1.84) 0.246
Triacylglycerol, mmol/L
 Men 0.90 (0.71–1.24) 0.86 (0.69–1.15) 0.94 (0.71–1.30) 1.00 (0.81–1.68) 1.22 (0.81–1.62) 0.031
 Women 0.78 (0.60–1.06) 0.75 (0.58–1.04) 0.80 (0.63–1.06) 0.84 (0.66–1.06) 1.32 (0.80–1.33) 0.706
ALT, U/L 20.0 ± 10.8 19.7 ± 11.5 20.1 ± 9.0 20.6 ± 8.9 23.6 ± 18.7 0.343
AST, U/L 22.3 ± 31.8 20.9 ± 16.1 24.4 ± 27.6 21.6 ± 10.9 26.7 ± 38.2 0.495
Gamma-GT, U/L 20.6 ± 33.3 18.4 ± 27.9 20.2 ± 20.5 22.5 ± 18.0 56.2 ± 125.8*** ††† ‡‡‡ < 0.0001
Uric acid, µmol/L 223.6 ± 67.4 213.7 ± 58.3 241.4 ± 72.3 316.3 ± 102.0*** ††† 381.7 ± 152.1*** ††† ‡ < 0.0001
Fibrinogen, µmol/L 9.89 ± 2.00 9.63 ± 1.93 10.93 ± 2.33 10.77 ± 1.59*** †† 12.32 ± 2.56*** †† < 0.0001
Creatinine, µmol/L 73.3 ± 18.6 70.8 ± 12.8 72.0 ± 12.6 79.6 ± 24.9*** 111.3 ± 55.5*** ††† ‡‡‡ < 0.0001
Albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), mg/mmol 0.49 (0.26–1.00) 0.40 (0.23–0.75) 0.52 (0.26–0.97) 1.66*** ††† (0.40–8.38) 8.31*** ††† ‡‡‡ (3.67–51.08) < 0.0001
eGFR, CKD-EPI, mL/min/1.73 m2 102.5 ± 17.4 107.4 ± 14.1 101.1 ± 13.8*** 90.4 ± 21.9*** ††† 68.9 ± 28.0*** ††† ‡‡‡ < 0.0001
Daily insulin dose, IU/kg body weight 0.66 ± 0.20 0.66 ± 0.21 0.67 ± 0.19 0.66 ± 0.22 0.78 ± 0.21 0.070
MDI/CSII, n (%) 691/83 (89.3/10.7) 380/45 (89.4/10.6) 223/27 (89.2/10.8) 65/10 (86.7/13.3) 23/1 (95.8/4.2) 0.655
Treatment with BP-lowering agents, n (%) 151 (19.5) 28 (6.6) 61 (24.4)*** 46 (61.3)*** ††† 16 (66.7)*** ††† < 0.0001
Treatment with RAS blockers, n (%) 136 (17.6) 23 (5.4) 56 (22.4)*** 42 (56.0)*** ††† 15 (62.5)*** ††† < 0.0001
Treatment with lipid-lowering agents, n (%) 100 (12.9) 35 (8.2) 38 (15.2)** 18 (24.0)*** 9 (37.5)*** †† < 0.0001
Treatment with antiplatelet drugs, n (%) 50 (6.5) 6 (1.4) 19 (7.6)*** 17 (22.7)*** ††† 8 (33.3)*** ††† < 0.0001
Treatment with metformin, n (%) 46 (5.9) 18 (4.2) 20 (8.0) 5 (6.7) 3 (12.5) 0.110
Hypertension, n (%) 270 (34.9) 82 (19.3) 110 (44.0)*** 55 (73.3)*** ††† 23 (95.8)*** ††† ‡ < 0.0001
Retinopathy: no retinopathy/non advanced/advanced, n (%) 452/202/120 (58.4/26.1/15.5) 425/0/0 (100/0/0) 26/164/60*** (10.4/65.6/24.0) 1/32/42*** ††† (1.3/42.7/56.0) 0/6/18*** ††† (0/25.0/75.0) < 0.0001
Peripheral polyneuropathy: no/yes, n (%) 706/68 (91.2/8.8) 425/0 (100/0) 241/9*** (96.4/3.6) 40/35*** ††† (53.3/46.7) 0/24*** ††† ‡‡‡ (0/100) < 0.0001
Diabetic kidney disease: no/yes, n (%) 792/82 (89.4/10.6) 425/0 (100/0) 233/17*** (93.2/6.8) 34/41*** ††† (45.3/54.7) 0/24*** ††† ‡‡‡ (0/100) < 0.0001
Major adverse cardiovascular events, n (%) 41 (5.3) 7 (1.6) 14 (5.6)** 13 (17.3)*** †† 7 (29.2)*** ††† < 0.0001
Coronary artery disease, n (%) 29 (3.7) 3 (0.7) 10 (4.0)** 10 (13.3)*** †† 6 (25.0)*** †† < 0.0001
Stroke, n (%) 4 (0.5) 2 (0.5) 0 (0) 2 (2.7) 0 (0) 0.090
EURODIAB PCS risk score: LS, IS, HS, n (%) 466/205/103 (60.2/26.5/13.3) 324/84/17 (76.2/19.8/4.0) 127/87/36*** (50.8/34.8/14.4) 14/30/31*** ††† (18.7/40.0/41.3) 1/4/19*** ††† ‡‡ (4.2/16.7/79.2) < 0.0001
Cancer, n (%) 9 (1.2) 3 (0.7) 2 (0.8) 3 (4.0)* 1 (4.2) 0.042
Autoimmune thyreopathy, n (%) 113 (14.6) 58 (13.6) 44 (17.6) 8 (10.7) 3 (12.5) 0.372
  1. Quantitative variables are shown as mean ± SD or median (IQR)
  2. MDI/CSII multiple daily insulin injections/continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
  3. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001 vs no MC
  4. p < 0.05; †† p < 0.01; ††† p < 0.001 vs 1 MC
  5. p < 0.05; ‡‡ p < 0.01; ‡‡‡ p < 0.001 vs 2 MC