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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of the study cohort, both overall and according to microvascular complications burden

From: Microvascular complications burden (nephropathy, retinopathy and peripheral polyneuropathy) affects risk of major vascular events and all-cause mortality in type 1 diabetes: a 10-year follow-up study

 All patients (n = 774)No MC (n = 425)1 MC (n = 250)2 MC (n = 75)3 MC (n = 24)p value
Men/women, n (%)407/367 (52.6/47.4)224/201 (52.7/47.3)130/120 (52.0/48.0)36/39 (48.0/52.0)17/7 (70.8/29.2)0.275
Age, years40.2 ± 11.736.3 ± 10.143.0 ± 10.4***48.4 ± 13.0*** ††55.7 ± 13.7*** ††† ‡< 0.0001
Age at diabetes diagnosis, years20.8 ± 10.923.2 ± 10.717.5 ± 10.0***17.7 ± 11.6***24.6 ± 8.9† ‡< 0.0001
Duration of diabetes, years19.4 ± 12.213.1 ± 9.425.5 ± 10.2***30.7 ± 11.2*** †††31.1 ± 12.9***< 0.0001
BMI, kg/m224.8 ± 3.624.2 ± 3.325.3 ± 3.7***26.2 ± 3.7***26.8 ± 3.9**< 0.0001
WHR0.921 ± 0.0630.914 ± 0.0560.924 ± 0.0690.943 ± 0.070**0.945 ± 0.081< 0.0001
Smoking habits (non-smokers, current smokers) (n. 759), n (%)534/225 (70.4/29.6)295/121 (70.9/29.1)168/78 (68.3/31.7)53/21 (71.6/28.4)18/5 (78.3/21.7)0.727
Fasting glucose, mmol/L9.44 ± 4.569.10 ± 4.239.44 ± 4.7810.74 ± 5.18*11.44 ± 4.800.005
HbA1c,  % (mmol/mol)7.83 ± 1.18 (62.1 ± 12.9)7.70 ± 1.19 (60.6 ± 13.0)7.85 ± 1.11 (62.3 ± 12.2)8.25 ± 1.10** (66.7 ± 12.0)8.60 ± 1.30** (70.4 ± 14.2)< 0.0001
Systolic BP, mmHg127 ± 18122 ± 15130 ± 18***136 ± 20*** 150 ± 16*** ††† ‡‡< 0.0001
Diastolic BP, mmHg73 ± 972 ± 875 ± 9**74 ± 1079 ± 11**< 0.0001
Total cholesterol, mmol/L4.84 ± 0.884.72 ± 0.855.00 ± 0.90**5.08 ± 0.85*4.68 ± 1.07< 0.0001
LDL cholesterol, mmol/L3.01 ± 0.762.94 ± 0.763.11 ± 0.74*3.12 ± 0.732.92 ± 0.940.019
HDL cholesterol, mmol/L
 Men1.45 (1.24–1.71)1.44 (1.22–1.71)1.53 (1.29–1.71)1.49 (1.32–1.68)1.40 (1.06–1.73)0.644
 Women1.74 (1.48–2.07)1.71 (1.42–1.99)1.79 (1.51–2.15)1.79 (1.58–2.15)1.76 (1.37–1.84)0.246
Triacylglycerol, mmol/L
 Men0.90 (0.71–1.24)0.86 (0.69–1.15)0.94 (0.71–1.30)1.00 (0.81–1.68)1.22 (0.81–1.62)0.031
 Women0.78 (0.60–1.06)0.75 (0.58–1.04)0.80 (0.63–1.06)0.84 (0.66–1.06)1.32 (0.80–1.33)0.706
ALT, U/L20.0 ± 10.819.7 ± 11.520.1 ± 9.020.6 ± 8.923.6 ± 18.70.343
AST, U/L22.3 ± 31.820.9 ± 16.124.4 ± 27.621.6 ± 10.926.7 ± 38.20.495
Gamma-GT, U/L20.6 ± 33.318.4 ± 27.920.2 ± 20.522.5 ± 18.056.2 ± 125.8*** ††† ‡‡‡< 0.0001
Uric acid, µmol/L223.6 ± 67.4213.7 ± 58.3241.4 ± 72.3316.3 ± 102.0*** †††381.7 ± 152.1*** ††† ‡< 0.0001
Fibrinogen, µmol/L9.89 ± 2.009.63 ± 1.9310.93 ± 2.3310.77 ± 1.59*** ††12.32 ± 2.56*** ††< 0.0001
Creatinine, µmol/L73.3 ± 18.670.8 ± 12.872.0 ± 12.679.6 ± 24.9*** 111.3 ± 55.5*** ††† ‡‡‡< 0.0001
Albumin-to-creatinine ratio (ACR), mg/mmol0.49 (0.26–1.00)0.40 (0.23–0.75)0.52 (0.26–0.97)1.66*** ††† (0.40–8.38)8.31*** ††† ‡‡‡ (3.67–51.08)< 0.0001
eGFR, CKD-EPI, mL/min/1.73 m2102.5 ± 17.4107.4 ± 14.1101.1 ± 13.8***90.4 ± 21.9*** †††68.9 ± 28.0*** ††† ‡‡‡< 0.0001
Daily insulin dose, IU/kg body weight0.66 ± 0.200.66 ± 0.210.67 ± 0.190.66 ± 0.220.78 ± 0.210.070
MDI/CSII, n (%)691/83 (89.3/10.7)380/45 (89.4/10.6)223/27 (89.2/10.8)65/10 (86.7/13.3)23/1 (95.8/4.2)0.655
Treatment with BP-lowering agents, n (%)151 (19.5)28 (6.6)61 (24.4)***46 (61.3)*** †††16 (66.7)*** †††< 0.0001
Treatment with RAS blockers, n (%)136 (17.6)23 (5.4)56 (22.4)***42 (56.0)*** †††15 (62.5)*** †††< 0.0001
Treatment with lipid-lowering agents, n (%)100 (12.9)35 (8.2)38 (15.2)**18 (24.0)***9 (37.5)*** ††< 0.0001
Treatment with antiplatelet drugs, n (%)50 (6.5)6 (1.4)19 (7.6)***17 (22.7)*** †††8 (33.3)*** †††< 0.0001
Treatment with metformin, n (%)46 (5.9)18 (4.2)20 (8.0)5 (6.7)3 (12.5)0.110
Hypertension, n (%)270 (34.9)82 (19.3)110 (44.0)***55 (73.3)*** †††23 (95.8)*** ††† ‡< 0.0001
Retinopathy: no retinopathy/non advanced/advanced, n (%)452/202/120 (58.4/26.1/15.5)425/0/0 (100/0/0)26/164/60*** (10.4/65.6/24.0)1/32/42*** ††† (1.3/42.7/56.0)0/6/18*** ††† (0/25.0/75.0)< 0.0001
Peripheral polyneuropathy: no/yes, n (%)706/68 (91.2/8.8)425/0 (100/0)241/9*** (96.4/3.6)40/35*** ††† (53.3/46.7)0/24*** ††† ‡‡‡ (0/100)< 0.0001
Diabetic kidney disease: no/yes, n (%)792/82 (89.4/10.6)425/0 (100/0)233/17*** (93.2/6.8)34/41*** ††† (45.3/54.7)0/24*** ††† ‡‡‡ (0/100)< 0.0001
Major adverse cardiovascular events, n (%)41 (5.3)7 (1.6)14 (5.6)**13 (17.3)*** ††7 (29.2)*** †††< 0.0001
Coronary artery disease, n (%)29 (3.7)3 (0.7)10 (4.0)**10 (13.3)*** ††6 (25.0)*** ††< 0.0001
Stroke, n (%)4 (0.5)2 (0.5)0 (0)2 (2.7)0 (0)0.090
EURODIAB PCS risk score: LS, IS, HS, n (%)466/205/103 (60.2/26.5/13.3)324/84/17 (76.2/19.8/4.0)127/87/36*** (50.8/34.8/14.4)14/30/31*** ††† (18.7/40.0/41.3)1/4/19*** ††† ‡‡ (4.2/16.7/79.2)< 0.0001
Cancer, n (%)9 (1.2)3 (0.7)2 (0.8)3 (4.0)* 1 (4.2)0.042
Autoimmune thyreopathy, n (%)113 (14.6)58 (13.6)44 (17.6)8 (10.7)3 (12.5)0.372
  1. Quantitative variables are shown as mean ± SD or median (IQR)
  2. MDI/CSII multiple daily insulin injections/continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion
  3. * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01; *** p < 0.001 vs no MC
  4. p < 0.05; †† p < 0.01; ††† p < 0.001 vs 1 MC
  5. p < 0.05; ‡‡ p < 0.01; ‡‡‡ p < 0.001 vs 2 MC