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Table 4 Association [HR (95% CI)] between 1-year changes of lysine, 2-aminoadipic acid and pipecolic acid with type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease

From: Lysine pathway metabolites and the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the PREDIMED study: results from two case-cohort studies

 Q1Q2Q3Q4p linear trend1 SD increase1 SD increase (adjusted for 1-year changes in 2-AAA and pipecolic acid)
1-year change lysine
 Outcome: T2D
  MV adjusted modelbRef.0.72 (0.37–1.40)0.43 (0.17–1.07)0.62 (0.29–1.34)0.2150.88 (0.65–1.20)0.80 (0.58–1.10)
 Outcome: CVD
  MV adjusted modelaRef.1.07 (0.63–1.82)0.93 (0.52–1.66)0.93 (0.52–1.64)0.7960.95 (0.77–1.18)0.99 (0.80–1.24)
 Q1Q2Q3Q4p linear trend1 SD increase1 SD increase (adjusted for 1-year changes in lysine and pipecolic acid)
1-year change 2-AAA
 Outcome: T2D
  MV adjusted modelbRef.1.30 (0.63–2.67)0.95(0.38–2.36)1.66 (0.82–3.39)0.2141.23 (0–96–1.58)1.29 (0.98–1.70)
 Outcome: CVD
  MV adjusted modelaRef.0.94 (0.52–1.69)0.97 (0.55–1.72)0.66 (0.35–1.21)0.2100.84 (0.67–1.05)0.81 (0.63–1.04)
 Q1Q2Q3Q4p linear trend1 SD increase1 SD increase (adjusted for 1-year changes in
lysine and 2-AAA)
1-year change pipecolic acid
 Outcome: T2D
  MV adjusted modelbRef.1.45 (0.54–3.84)1.22 (0.43–3.46)1.42 (0.54–3.71)0.4831.08 (0.81–1.44)1.18 (0.88–1.58)
 Outcome: CVD
  MV adjusted modelaRef.0.49 (0.21–1.12)0.52 (0.24–1.13)0.93 (0.47–1.84)0.5931.03 (0.83–1.28)1.10 (0.87–1.37)
  1. CVD cardiovascular disease, T2D type 2 diabetes, MV multivariable, 2-AAA 2-aminoadipic acid
  2. aMultivariable model adjusted for age, sex, intervention, BMI, smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, baseline plasma glucose and the respective baseline metabolite
  3. bMultivariable model adjusted for age, sex, intervention, BMI, smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, T2D, family history of CVD and the respective baseline metabolite