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Table 3 Association [HR (95% CI)] between baseline levels of lysine, 2-aminoadipic acid and pipecolic acid with cardiovascular disease or type 2 diabetes

From: Lysine pathway metabolites and the risk of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in the PREDIMED study: results from two case-cohort studies

 Q1Q2Q3Q4p linear trend1 SD increase
Baseline lysine
 Outcome: T2D
  Basic modelaRef.1.10 (0.70–1.71)1.47 (0.95–2.28)1.24 (0.80–1.92)0.1891.11 (0.96–1.29)
  MV adjusted modelbRef.1.19 (0.67–2.11)1.56 (0.88–2.75)1.66 (0.96–2.86)0.0381.26 (1.06–1.51)
  MV adjusted for 2-AAA and pipec.Ref.1.17 (0.67–2.07)1.52 (0.85–2.70)1.50 (0.87–2.60)0.1131.20 (0.99–1.44)
 Outcome: CVD
  Basic modelaRef.0.86 (0.55–1.34)0.96 (0.61–1.51)0.94 (0.60–1.47)0.8970.99 (0.81–1.20)
  MV adjusted modelcRef.0.80 (0.48–1.29)1.01 (0.62–1.65)0.84 (0.51–1.38)0.7180.98 (0.82–1.17)
  MV adjusted for 2-AAA and pipec.Ref.0.78 (0.49–1.35)0.99 (0.61–1.60)0.82 (0.49–1.35)0.6360.98 (0.82–1.17)
Baseline 2-AAA
 Outcome: T2D
  Basic modelaRef.0.95 (0.59–1.54)1.40 (0.89–2.21)1.92 (1.23–1.54)0.0011.29 (1.10–1.52)
  MV adjusted modelbRef.1.28 (0.66–2.50)1.51 (0.82–2.77)1.94 (1.03–3.63)0.0261.28 (1.05–1.55)
  MV adjusted for lysine and pipec.Ref.1.32 (0.68–2.59)1.43 (0.77–2.63)1.81 (0.97–3.37)0.0501.21 (0.99–1.47)
 Outcome: CVD
  Basic modelaRef.1.11 (0.70–1.74)0.94 (0.59–1.51)1.21 (0.76–1.90)0.5321.06 (0.90–1.23)
  MV adjusted modelcRef.1.18 (0.73–1.91)0.84 (0.51–1.40)1.13 (0.69–1.83)0.8941.00 (0.85–1.18)
  MV adjusted for lysine and pipec.Ref.1.20 (0.74–1.95)0.86 (0.51–1.43)1.19 (0.71–1.99)0.7661.01 (0.85–1.20)
Baseline pipecolic acid
 Outcome: T2D
  Basic modelaRef.1.32 (0.86–2.02)1.13 (0.72–1.78)1.46 (0.93–2.31)0.1711.13 (0.96–1.32)
  MV adjusted modelbRef.1.24 (0.72–2.14)0.97 (0.55–1.71)1.37 (0.78–2.41)0.4111.13 (0.92–1.13)
  MV adjusted for lysine and 2-AAARef.1.07 (0.62–1.87)0.86 (0.49–1.51)1.32 (0.74–2.36)0.5061.08 (0.88–1.32)
 Outcome: CVD
  Basic modelaRef.0.69 (0.44–1.09)0.77 (0.49–1.21)0.93 (0.61–1.42)0.9481.03 (0.88–1.20)
  MV adjusted modelcRef.0.71 (0.45–1.11)0.68 (0.42–1.11)0.84 (0.55–1.38)0.6100.99 (0.83–1.18)
  MV adjusted for lysine and 2-AAARef.0.70 (0.43–1.14)0.70 (0.43–1.14)0.88 (0.55–1.41)0.6690.99 (0.82–1.20)
  1. CVD cardiovascular disease, T2D type 2 diabetes, MV mutivariable
  2. aAdjusted for age, sex and intervention
  3. bBasic model additionally adjusted for BMI, smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension and baseline plasma glucose
  4. cBasic model additionally adjusted for BMI, smoking, dyslipidemia, hypertension, T2D, family history of CVD