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Table 4 Adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals for the incidence of cardiovascular diseases and all-cause mortality during follow up according to the presence and type of diabetes mellitus in subgroups

From: Risk of early mortality and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes: a comparison with type 2 diabetes, a nationwide study

nAge groupsSex
Age < 65 yearsAge ≥ 65 yearsMen
Without diabetesT2DT1DWithout diabetesT2DT1DWithout diabetesT2DT1D
16,432,5051,336,35264442,067,646577,15129539,435,9681,125,8515348
Myocardial infarction
 Events (n)45,76015,00312737,95217,66314449,09419,398161
 Follow-up durationa74,096,761.666,371,484.6230,193.3510,061,079.612,822,286.4814,113.1743,604,234.555,351,613.5624,915.64
 IRb61.760235.470420.620377.220625.8401020.320112.590362.470646.181
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (Ref.)1.384 (1.349–1.419)2.549 (2.138–3.038)1 (Ref.)1.462 (1.430–1.495)2.418 (2.051–2.850)1 (Ref.)1.362 (1.333–1.393)2.307 (1.975–2.696)
Hospitalization for HF
 Events (n)33,46812,53315855,70523,91521845,07919,112207
 Follow-up durationa74,137,669.236,382,665.7230,199.8210,050,780.962,820,411.8214,038.7543,638,053.445,362,891.9124,894.04
 IRb45.140196.360523.180554.240847.9301552.840103.302356.375831.524
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (Ref.)1.533 (1.490–1.577)4.015 (3.427–4.704)1 (Ref.)1.397 (1.371–1.424)2.722 (2.382–3.112)1 (Ref.)1.419 (1.388–1.451)3.079 (2.683–3.533)
Atrial fibrillation
 Events (n)50,06011,5238955,50218,22013859,91317,762133
 Follow-up durationa74,095,720.846,381,466.7130,291.2210,032,075.492,823,462.6714,134.4943,594,810.105,358,747.0624,969.15
 IRb67.561180.570293.815553.245645.307976.335137.431331.458532.657
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (Ref.)1.109 (1.079–1.141)1.928 (1.565–2.374)1 (Ref.)1.072 (1.050–1.095)1.668 (1.410–1.973)1 (Ref.)1.087 (1.064–1.111)1.688 (1.423–2.003)
All-cause mortality
 Events (n)96,88530,131300152,73763,887576161,56962,460581
 Follow-up durationa74,189,668.596,403,591.1330,439.6710,137,129.572,858,007.6814,349.1243,703,573.265,391,593.9825,187.91
 IRb130.590470.530985.5601506.7102235.3704014.180369.6901158.4702306.660
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (Ref.)1.653 (1.623–1.683)3.328 (2.969–3.731)1 (Ref.)1.491 (1.474–1.509)2.833 (2.609–3.076)1 (Ref.)1.514 (1.496–1.532)2.790 (2.571–3.029)
nSexPresence of chronic kidney disease
WomenNoYes
Without diabetesT2DT1DWithout diabetesT2DT1DWithout diabetesT2DT1D
9,064,183787,652404917,617,7831,700,7667652882,368212,7371745
Myocardial infarction
 Events (n)34,61813,26811073,27525,48517510,437718196
 Follow-up durationa40,553,606.723,842,157.5519,390.8879,549,644.558,151,279.4536,173.824,608,196.721,042,491.658132.69
 IRb85.364345.327567.27792.110312.650483.780226.490688.8301180.420
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (Ref.)1.497 (1.458–1.536)2.576 (2.133–3.111)1 (Ref.)1.350 (1.325–1.376)2.127 (1.832–2.470)1 (Ref.)1.649 (1.590–1.711)2.938 (2.399–3.599)
Hospitalization for HF
 Events (n)44,09417,33616973,63026,00522715,54310,443149
 Follow-up durationa40,550,396.753,840,185.6319,344.5479,583,758.888,163,014.4736,164.034,604,691.301,040,063.078074.54
 IRb108.739451.437873.63292.520318.570627.700337.5501004.0701845.310
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (Ref.)1.415 (1.383–1.447)2.962 (2.543–3.451)1 (Ref.)1.320 (1.296–1.345)2.654 (2.327–3.027)1 (Ref.)1.603 (1.555–1.651)3.225 (2.740–3.796)
Atrial fibrillation
 Events (n)45,64911,9819491,61623,22414713,946651980
 Follow-up durationa40,532,986.223,846,182.3219,456.5679,525,314.438,159,959.2136,253.654,602,481.891,044,970.178172.06
 IRb112.622311.504483.127115.204284.609405.476303.010623.846978.946
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (Ref.)1.080 (1.052–1.108)1.834 (1.496–2.247)1 (Ref.)1.053 (1.033–1.073)1.592 (1.353–1.873)1 (Ref.)1.168 (1.126–1.210)1.955 (1.566–2.440)
All-cause mortality
 Events (n)88,05331,558295212,74771,49457336,87522,524303
 Follow-up durationa40,623,224.903,870,004.8319,600.8779,697,361.818,204,635.7936,493.654,629,436.351,056,963.028295.14
 IRb216.760815.4501505.040266.940871.3901570.140796.5302131.0103652.740
 Adjusted HR (95% CI)1 (Ref.)1.505 (1.480–1.530)3.051 (2.718–3.424)1 (Ref.)1.463 (1.447–1.479)2.642 (2.433–2.870)1 (Ref.)1.588 (1.556–1.620)3.006 (2.681–3.369)
  1. Adjusted for age, sex, smoking history, alcohol history, regular exercise, monthly income, body mass index, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and fasting plasma glucose. Statistically significant values among the hazard ratios (95% confidence intervals) were given in italic
  2. T2D type 2 diabetes, T1D type 1 diabetes IR incidence rate, HR hazard ratio, HF heart failure
  3. aIn person-years
  4. bPer 100,000 person-years