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Table 1 Baseline characteristics according to the presence and type of diabetes mellitus

From: Risk of early mortality and cardiovascular disease in type 1 diabetes: a comparison with type 2 diabetes, a nationwide study

 Individuals without diabetesIndividuals with type 2 diabetesIndividuals with type 1 diabetes
n = 18,500,151n = 1913,503n = 9397
Age (years)45.92 ± 14.2357.81 ± 11.9156.21 ± 13.99
Men [n (%)]9,435,968 (51.00)1,125,851 (58.84)5,348 (56.91)
Low income level (lowest 20%) [n (%)]3,730,295 (20.16)435,273 (22.75)2,390 (25.43)
Current smoker [n (%)]4,596,861 (24.85)485,750 (25.39)2,196 (23.37)
Heavy alcohol consumers [n (%)]1,176,482 (6.36)161,349 (8.43)511 (5.44)
Regular exercise [n (%)]9,469,745 (51.19)914,636 (47.80)4,441 (47.26)
Body weight (kg)63.60 ± 11.8066.24 ± 11.7663.92 ± 11.06
BMI (kg/m2)23.57 ± 3.2625.08 ± 3.3724.13 ± 3.39
Waist circumference (cm)79.44 ± 9.2085.47 ± 8.5683.63 ± 9.52
 In men83.16 ± 7.9386.98 ± 7.9585.09 ± 8.67
 In women75.57 ± 8.8383.31 ± 8.9281.70 ± 10.21
Systolic BP (mmHg)121.22 ± 14.80128.91 ± 15.63126.78 ± 16.65
Diastolic BP (mmHg)75.65 ± 9.9378.84 ± 10.0776.57 ± 9.96
Fasting plasma glucose (mg/dl)92.87 ± 11.01145.22 ± 45.76156.99 ± 69.64
Total cholesterol (mg/dl)194.22 ± 35.88194.96 ± 41.47187.51 ± 40.96
Triglyceride (mg/dl)106.71 (106.68–106.74)146.24 (146.13–146.36)119.02 (117.60–120.45)
HDL-C (mg/dl)55.90 ± 16.8251.08 ± 17.1453.09 ± 19.05
LDL-C (mg/dl)114.43 ± 42.68110.81 ± 43.36106.26 ± 36.76
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2)90.46 ± 47.2585.47 ± 40.1682.62 ± 43.45
Proteinuria (urine dipstick positivity) [n (%)]728,964 (3.94)205,321 (10.73)1,897 (20.19)
Statin use [n (%)]a2,328,415 (12.59)926,340 (48.41)4,741 (50.45)
Baseline comorbidities [n (%)]
 Hypertension4,111,022 (22.22)1,097,064 (57.33)5,291 (56.31)
 Dyslipidemia3,020,052 (16.32)829,098 (43.33)3,870 (41.18)
 Metabolic syndromeb4,155,335 (22.46)1,436,073 (75.05)5,972 (63.55)
  1. Continuous variables with normal distributions are expressed as mean ± standard deviation and continuous variables with non-normal distributions are expressed as median (interquartile range). Categorical data are presented as frequencies and percentages
  2. AF atrial fibrillation, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL-C high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, HF heart failure, LDL-C low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, MI myocardial infarction
  3. aStatin use was defined as the prescription of statins for at least 6 months from baseline to the end of the follow-up
  4. bThe 2005 revision of the National Cholesterol Education Program Adult Treatment Panel III criteria were used with Asian-specific cut-off values for abdominal obesity (WC ≥ 90 cm in men, ≥ 80 cm in women)