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Table 3 Adjusted* β-coefficient (95% confidence interval [CI]) of the associations between fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI), the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and 2-h postload glucose (2HG) and insulin (2HI) with arterial stiffness index (ASI), left ventricular stroke volume index (LVSI), heart rate (HR), left ventricular cardiac output index (LVCI) and left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF)

From: Glucose and insulin levels are associated with arterial stiffness and concentric remodeling of the heart

Parameter Fasting glucose β-coefficient (95% CI), p-value (n = 1001) Fasting insulin β-coefficient (95% CI), p-value (n = 1001) HOMA-IR β-coefficient (95% CI), p-value (n = 999) 2-h glucose β-coefficient (95% CI), p-value (n = 1001) 2-h insulin β-coefficient (95% CI), p-value (n = 984)
Arterial stiffness index (mmHg*m2.7/ml) 0.12 (0.06 to 0.17), p < 0.001 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01), p = 0.011 0.03 (0.01 to 0.05), p = 0.002 0.03 (0.01 to 0.04), p = 0.005 0.00 (− 0.00 to − 0.00), p = 0.870
Left ventricular stroke volume index (ml/m2.7) − 0.71 (− 1.11 to − 0.31), p = 0.001 − 0.07 (− 0.11 to − 0.03), p < 0.001 − 0.25 (− 0.38 to − 0.11), p < 0.001 − 0.18 (− 0.30 to − 0.05), p = 0.006 − 0.84a (− 1.17 to − 0.50), p < 0.001
Heart rate (bpm) 2.13 (0.91 to 3.34), p = 0.001 4.92a (3.34 to 6.51), p < 0.001 4.49a (3.06 to 5.93), p < 0.001 0.68 (0.34 to 1.05), p < 0.001 0.03 (0.02 to 0.05), p < 0.001
Left ventricular cardiac output index (l/min*m2.7) − 0.02 (− 0.05 to − 0.01), p = 0.305 0.00 (− 0.00 to 0.00), p = 0.690 0.00 (− 0.01 to 0.01), p = 0.875 − 0.00 (− 0.01 to 0.01), p = 0.681 − 0.00 (− 0.00 to 0.00), p = 0.423
Left ventricular ejection fraction (%) 0.01 (− 0.66 to 0.67), p = 0.982 0.06 (− 0.00 to 1.13), p = 0.061 0.20 (− 0.03 to 0.43), p = 0.088 0.10 (− 0.11 to 0.30), p = 0.350 0.01 (0.00 to 0.02), p = 0.003
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p-value < 0.05
  2. * Linear regression adjusted for age, sex, body fat-free mass, body fat mass, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking status, alcohol consumption, sedentarism, estimated glomerular filtration rate, fasting time and study sample
  3. aLog-linear association