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Table 2 Adjusted* β-coefficient (95% confidence interval [CI]) of the associations between fasting glucose (FG) and insulin (FI), the homeostasis model assessment-insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) and 2-h postload glucose (2HG) and insulin (2HI) with left ventricular mass index (LVMI), left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (LVEDVI), left ventricular end-systolic volume index (LVESVI), left ventricular wall-thickness index (LVWTI) and left ventricular concentricity (LVC)

From: Glucose and insulin levels are associated with arterial stiffness and concentric remodeling of the heart

Parameter Fasting glucose β-coefficient (95% CI), p-value (n = 1001) Fasting insulin β-coefficient (95% CI), p-value (n = 1001) HOMA-IR β-coefficient (95% CI), p-value (n = 999) 2-h glucose β-coefficient (95% CI), p-value (n = 1001) 2-h insulin β-coefficient (95% CI), p-value (n = 984)
Left ventricular mass index (g/m2.7) − 0.08 (− 0.58 to 0.42), p = 0.761 0.01 (− 0.04 to 0.06), p = 0.761 0.05 (− 0.13 to 0.22), p = 0.602 − 0.03 (− 0.18 to 0.13), p = 0.726 − 0.00 (− 0.01 to 0.00), p = 0.324
Left ventricular end-diastolic volume index (ml/m2.7) − 1.18 (− 1.80 to − 0.57), p < 0.001 − 2.42a (− 3.17 to − 1.67), p < 0.001 − 2.27a (− 2.96 to − 1.58), p < 0.001 − 0.35 (− 0.54 to − 1.16), p < 0.001 − 1.70a (− 2.24 to − 1.17), p < 0.001
Left ventricular end-systolic volume index (ml/m2.7) − 0.48 (− 0.84 to − 0.12), p = 0.008 − 1.19a (− 1.65 to − 0.72), p < 0.001 − 1.10a (− 1.53 to − 0.68), p < 0.001 − 0.18 (− 0.29 to − 0.07), p = 0.002 − 0.96a (− 1.27 to − 0.66), p < 0.001
Left ventricular wall-thickness index (mm/m2.7) 0.042 (0.014 to 0.070), p = 0.003 0.007 (0.004 to 0.010), p < 0.001 0.025 (0.015 to 0.034), p < 0.001 0.013 (0.004 to 0.021), p = 0.004 0.001 (0.000 to 0.001), p = 0.003
Left ventricular concentricity 0.037 (0.018 to 0.056), p < 0.001 0.006 (0.004 to 0.007), p < 0.001 0.020 (0.013 to 0.026), p < 0.001 0.012 (0.007 to 0.018), p < 0.001 0.000 (0.000 to 0.001), p < 0.001
  1. Italic values indicate significance of p-value < 0.05
  2. * Linear regression adjusted for age, sex, body fat-free mass, body fat mass, systolic blood pressure, use of antihypertensive medication, smoking status, alcohol consumption, sedentarism, estimated glomerular filtration rate, fasting time and study sample
  3. aLog-linear association