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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of subjects according to the low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) levels

From: Cholesterol levels and development of cardiovascular disease in Koreans with type 2 diabetes mellitus and without pre-existing cardiovascular disease

  LDL-C1 < 70 mg/dL LDL-C2 70–99 LDL-C3 100–129 LDL-C4 130–159 LDL-C5 ≥ 160 mg/dL
N 224,131 522,912 630,875 409,247 218,035
Baseline LDL-C (mg/dL) 55.1 ± 11.9 85.9 ± 8.5 114.2 ± 8.6 142.7 ± 8.5 182.1 ± 21.3
Age (years) 59.1 ± 10.3 58.9 ± 10.5 58.3 ± 10.6 57.9 ± 10.6 57.8 ± 10.4
Sex (male) 149,064 (66.5) 323,164 (61.8) 378,583 (60.0) 224,922 (55.0) 100,376 (46.0)
Body mass index (kg/m2) 24.8 ± 3.3 24.9 ± 3.3 25.0 ± 3.3 25.2 ± 3.2 25.3 ± 3.2
Systolic BP (mmHg) 128.7 ± 15.6 128.5 ± 15.5 128.9 ± 15.6 129.4 ± 15.7 130.1 ± 16.1
Diastolic BP (mmHg) 78.5 ± 10.1 78.5 ± 10.1 79.0 ± 10.0 79.5 ± 10.1 80.0 ± 10.2
Fasting glucose (mg/dL) 139.1 ± 42.5 140.1 ± 41.6 143.5 ± 41.9 146.9 ± 43.1 151.5 ± 46.4
eGFR (mL/min/1.73 m2) 85.9 ± 36.2 85.6 ± 35.5 85.5 ± 34.5 85.1 ± 34.3 84.3 ± 33.8
Baseline TC (mg/dL) 142.1 ± 22.5 168.4 ± 20.1 196.2 ± 19.1 225.3 ± 18.7 266.8 ± 27.9
Baseline HDL-C (mg/dL) 51.7 ± 15.7 51.3 ± 13.6 51.4 ± 12.8 51.8 ± 12.4 53.0 ± 12.4
Baseline TG (mg/dL) 150.5 (150.1–150.8) 136.7 (136.5–136.9) 136.9 (136.7–137.0) 140.0 (139.8–140.2) 146.1 (145.8–146.4)
Current smoker 64,610 (28.8) 132,128 (25.3) 154,612 (24.5) 95,907 (23.4) 46,259 (21.2)
Alcohol drinking 27,933 (12.5) 48,397 (9.3) 51,235 (8.1) 28,894 (7.1) 12,738 (5.8)
Regular exercise 109,775 (49.0) 256,835 (49.1) 307,824 (48.8) 195,661 (47.8) 98,948 (45.4)
Income (lower 25%) 51,468 (23.0) 117,938 (22.6) 142,292 (22.6) 92,628(22.6) 50,908(23.4)
Hypertension 145,727 (65.0) 311,176 (59.5) 346,790 (55.0) 215,537(52.7) 113,059(51.9)
On statin treatment 123,580(55.1) 199,393 (38.1) 144,862 (23.0) 95,709(23.4) 81,496(37.4)
Duration of diabetes (years) 9.2 ± 5.5 8.6 ± 5.7 7.7 ± 5.8 7.1 ± 5.7 6.5 ± 5.4
Use of aspirin 117,987 (52.6) 245,124 (46.9) 254,625 (40.4) 149,627(36.6) 75,142(34.5)
  1. Data are expressed as the mean ± SD, median (25–75%), or n (%)
  2. BP, blood pressure; eGFR, estimated glomerular filtration rate; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; LDL, low-density lipoprotein; TC, total cholesterol; TG, triglyceride
  3. P-values for the trend were < 0.0001 for all variables because of the large size of the study population