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Table 1 Baseline characters of participants according to glucose metabolism status

From: Impact of free fatty acids on prognosis in coronary artery disease patients under different glucose metabolism status

Variables Total n = 5433 NGR n = 1039 Pre-DM n = 2788 DM n = 1606 p-value for trend
Clinical characteristics
 Age, years 57.97 ± 10.35 54.45 ± 10.54 58.64 ± 10.09 59.09 ± 10.19 < 0.001
 Male, 3954 (72.8) 807 (77.7) 2009 (72.2) 11,139 (70.9) < 0.001
 BMI (kg/m2) 25.83 ± 3.17 25.31 ± 2.99 25.76 ± 3.12 26.30 ± 3.14 < 0.001
 Overweight 3291 (60.5) 581 (55.9) 1663 (59.6) 1047 (65.2) < 0.001
 Obese 505 (9.3) 72 (6.9) 249 (8.9) 184 (11.5) < 0.001
 Hypertension 3451 (63.5) 598 (57.6) 1676 (60.1) 1177 (73.3) < 0.001
 Family history of CAD 787 (14.5) 172 (16.6) 379 (13.6) 236 (14.7) 0.066
 Current Smoker 2436 (55.2) 580 (55.8) 1559 (52.0) 858 (53.4) 0.248
 Drinking 1627 (30.1) 360 (34.8) 798 (28.7) 469 (29.3) 0.001
Laboratory findings
 Glucose (mmol/L) 5.71 ± 1.69 4.72 ± 0.42 5.21 ± 0.73 7.23 ± 2.28 < 0.001
 HbA1c (%) 6.37 ± 1.11 5.39 ± 0.24 6.09 ± 0.41 7.51 ± 1.32 < 0.001
 Creatinine (μmol) 76.50 ± 18.31 76.40 ± 15.52 75.96 ± 17.41 77.50 ± 21.24 0.077
 TC (mmol/L) 4.13 ± 1.16 4.01 ± 1.13 4.19 ± 1.18 4.11 ± 1.15 0.139
 HDL-C (mmol/L) 1.05 ± 0.28 1.05 ± 0.29 1.06 ± 0.28 1.02 ± 0.27 0.001
 LDL-C (mmol/L) 2.52 ± 1.02 2.45 ± 1.06 2.57 ± 1.02 2.48 ± 1.00 0.907
 TG (mmol/L) 1.52 (1.12–2.09) 1.44 (1.05–1.99) 1.49 (1.11–2.03) 1.60 (1.20–2.25) < 0.001
 FFAs (mmol/L) 0.40 (0.30–0.53) 0.40 (0.30–0.48) 0.40 (0.29–0.49) 0.46 (0.35–0.57) < 0.001
 LVEF (%) 63.37 ± 8.36 63.90 ± 7.76 63.24 ± 8.54 63.26 ± 8.39 0.093
 Gensini score 24 (8–48) 20 (8–39) 22 (8–44) 28 (12–56) < 0.001
Medications
 Baseline statins 4294 (79.0) 805 (77.5) 2788 (79.9) 1606 (78.6) 0.233
 Follow-up statins 5331 (98.1) 1011 (97.3) 2744 (98.4) 1606 (98.1) 0.077
 Baseline aspirin 2873 (52.9) 523 (50.3) 1488 (53.4) 862 (53.7) 0.123
 Follow-up aspirin 5435 (98.4) 1039 (98.1) 2788 (98.4) 1606 (98.6) 0.618
 Baseline ACEIs/ARBs 1540 (28.3) 295 (28.4) 778 (27.9) 467 (29.1) 0.623
 Follow-up ACEIs/ARBs 4661 (85.8) 886 (85.3) 2392 (85.8) 1383 (86.1) 0.552
 Baseline β-blockers 2873 (52.9) 523 (50.3) 1488 (53.4) 862 (53.7) 0.123
 Follow-up β-Blockers 4386 (80.7) 829 (79.8) 2253 (80.8) 1304 (81.2) 0.389
Baseline antidiabetes drugs
 OADs 937 (17.2) 937 (58.3)  
 Insulin 571 (10.5) 571 (35.6)  
  1. Data were expressed as mean ± SD, median with 25th and 75th percentile or n (%)
  2. p for trend for the continuous and categorical variables was examined by a generalized linear model and the Chi square test
  3. NGR normal glucose regulation, Pre-DM pre-diabetes mellitus, DM diabetes mellitus, BMI body mass index, HbA1c haemoglobin A1c, TC total cholesterol, TG triglyceride, LDL-C low density lipoprotein cholesterol, HDL-C high density lipoprotein cholesterol, FFAs free fatty acids, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, CAD coronary artery disease, ACEIs ACE inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, OADs oral antidiabetes drugs