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Table 4 Prospective biomarkers for GDM diagnosis

From: Predictive and diagnostic biomarkers for gestational diabetes and its associated metabolic and cardiovascular diseases

Protein biomarker Main proposed origin Week of pregnancy Change in GDM Metabolic- and cardiovascular-related properties
FGF-23 Adipose, liver 24–28th Higher Arterial stiffness Left ventricular hypertrophy
FGF-21 Liver, placenta 24–28th Higher Reduction of diabetes-associated vascular injury Stimulation of glucose uptake Arterial fibrosis
TNFα Macrophages (adipose, placenta) 24–28th Higher Pro-inflammatory Insulin resistance Glut4 downregulation
PAI-1 Artery, placenta, adipose 24–28th Higher Inhibition of plasminogen Migration of vascular cells
Fetuin-B Liver, placenta, fetal tissues 24–28th Higher Modulation of the insulin receptor Systemic inflammation
Follistatin Gonadal, intestine, placenta 26th Lower Antagonism of activin-A Reduction of cardiac ischaemia–reperfusion injury
  1. Several proteins released at the 24th–28th week of pregnancy in maternal plasma could be useful to diagnose GDM. Some of them have been related with metabolic and cardiovascular pathologies (https://www.genecards.org/)