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Table 3 Candidates biomarkers for GDM prediction

From: Predictive and diagnostic biomarkers for gestational diabetes and its associated metabolic and cardiovascular diseases

Panel A
Protein biomarker Main proposed origin Week of pregnancy Change in GDM Metabolic- and cardiovascular-related properties
RBP4 Liver, adipose, breast 1st–12th/16–20th Higher Pro-inflammatory Glut4 down-regulation and insulin resistance
Endothelial dysfunction
SHBG Liver, placenta 1st–13th Lower Polycystic ovary syndrome
Insulin resistance
Afamin Liver, placenta 1st–12th Higher Insulin resistance
Metabolic syndrome
FABP4 Adipose, placenta 4–6th/23rd–30th Higher Fatty acid uptake, transport, and metabolism
hs-CRP Liver, pancreas, adipose 4–6th/11–14th
Higher Pro-inflammatory of acute response
Adiponectin Adipose, breast 6th–32nd Lower Anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenesis
Visfatin Adipose, placenta 11–13th Higher Pro-inflammatory and chemotactic
Endothelial dysfunction
Acute myocardial infraction
Fetuin-A Liver, placenta, fetal tissues 11–14th Lower Pro-inflammatory
Regulation of the insulin receptor
Vessel calcification
Omentin-1 Adipose, placenta 12–15th Lower Anti-inflammatory
Vasodilatation and endothelial function
IL-6 Adipose, lung 12–15th Higher Pro-inflammatory
Atherogenesis and DM
Leptin Adipose, breast 14–20th/24–28th Higher Reduction on insulin action and appetite Pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory
Arterial stiffness
Ficolin-3 Liver, placenta 16th–18th Lower Insulin resistance
T2DM development
Panel B
Genetic biomarker Main proposed origin Week of pregnancy Change in GDM Metabolic- and cardiovascular-related properties
miR-16-5p Placenta 4–6th/16th Higher Pro-inflammatory
Regulation of vascular endothelial growth
miR-17-5p Placenta 4–6th/16th Higher Insulin resistance
Regulation of angiogenesis
miR-20a-5p Placenta 4–6th/16th Higher Regulation of LDL receptor
Modulation of aerobic cardiac capacity
Coronary artery disease
miR-21-3p Placenta 7th–23rd/30–36th Higher Pro-inflammatory
Insulin resistance
miR-29a Placenta 16th Lower Repression of insulin-signaling
Regulation of Glut4
Control of fatty acid/glucose metabolism
miR-132 Placenta 16th Lower Insulin secretion
Enhancement of glucose homeostasis
miR-222 Placenta 16th Lower Insulin resistance
Downregulation of Glut4
miR-19a/b-3p Placenta 16th Higher Pro-inflammatory
Insulin resistance
Vascular injury
  1. Some protein (A) and miRs (B) from diverse origins can be early detected in maternal plasma during gestation. Their modified levels have been correlated with later GDM development. Some of them can also provide information about potential metabolic and cardiovascular disorders (