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Fig. 7 | Cardiovascular Diabetology

Fig. 7

From: Atrial fibrillation and its arrhythmogenesis associated with insulin resistance

Fig. 7

Upregulation of transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in insulin-resistant neonatal mouse cardiomyocytes and rat atrial fibroblasts. Representative examples (left panel) and mean ± SE of the relative expression levels of each protein quantified through densitometry and normalized to the control level, which was set at 1.0 (right panel) in a atrial fibroblasts and b neonatal cardiomyocytes treated with and without palmitate and glucose, respectively. n = 3 independent experiments for each group. One-way ANOVA with post hoc Tukey’s tests were applied for comparisons. *P < 0.05 versus control

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