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Table 1 Population analysis

From: Intrinsic calcification angle: a novel feature of the vulnerable coronary plaque in patients with type 2 diabetes: an optical coherence tomography study

  Stable CAD (n = 56) ACS (n = 36) P
Age (years) 70.4 ± 5.9 67.8 ± 9.2 0.171
Sex (male, n, %) 36 (64.3) 25 (69.4) 0.609
Hypertension (n, %) 49 (87.5) 23 (63.9) 0.365
Systolic BP (mmHg) 137.8 ± 19.6 137.0 ± 16.6 0.827
Current nicotine use (n, %) 9 (16.1) 10 (27.8) 0.176
Total pack years (pack years) 17.1 ± 22.2 18.2 ± 17.3 0.796
Positive family history (n, %) 25 (44.6) 12 (33.3) 0.280
Hyperlipidaemia (n, %) 39 (69.6) 23 (63.9) 0.566
BMI (kg/m2) 30.8 ± 4.6 29.4 ± 6.0 0.218
COPD (n, %) 6 (10.7) 5 (13.9) 0.647
Known CAD (n, %) 20 (35.7) 13 (36.1) 0.969
Previous PCI (n, %) 14 (25.0) 13 (36.1) 0.559
Previous CABG (n, %) 2 (3.6) 1 (2.8) 0.834
Diabetes severity
 Duration of diabetes (years) 11.4 ± 9.5 11.3 ± 10.5 0.943
 History of diabetic retinopathy (n, %) 10 (17.9) 8 (22.2) 0.606
 History of diabetic neuropathy (n, %) 20 (35.7) 8 (22.2) 0.170
 HbA1c (%) 7.2 ± 1.6 7.7 ± 1.8 0.008
Lab values
 Total cholesterol (mg/ml) 191.2 ± 45.1 187.1 ± 44.3 0.667
 LDL-cholesterol (mg/ml) 117.8 ± 36.4 113.0 ± 36.2 0.543
 HDL-cholesterol (mg/ml) 44.2 ± 10.3 42.5 ± 12.4 0.472
 Triglycerides (mg/dl) 181.8 ± 103.2 165.4 ± 95.2 0.454
 eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 58.8 ± 6.5 58.1 ± 6.4 0.620
 BUN (mg/dl) 40.6 ± 14.5 40.2 ± 16.5 0.899
 Serum Creatinine (mg/dl) 1.0 ± 0.2 1.0 ± 0.3 0.927
 CRP (mg/ml) 9.3 ± 11.6 20.1 ± 31.6 0.057
 Creatine kinase at admission (U/l) 102.9 ± 60.1 190.1 ± 158.3 0.003
 LDH (U/l) 213.2 ± 66.4 245.4 ± 82.0 0.046
 Maximal troponin T (ng/ml) NA 487.4 ± 579.5 NA
 Maximal CK (U/l) NA 283.1 ± 215.7 NA
 Maximal CK-MB (U/l) NA 84.0 ± 16.9 NA
Medication pre-OCT
 Aspirin (n, %) 52 (92.9) 32 (88.9) 0.510
 Betablocker (n, %) 46 (82.1) 25 (71.4) 0.230
 ACE-i or ARB (n, %) 39 (72.2) 24 (68.8) 0.711
 Insulin (n, %) 26 (46.6) 14 (38.9) 0.476
 Metformin (n, %) 37 (66.1) 22 (61.1) 0.628
 Sulfonylureas (n, %) 13 (23.2) 5 (13.9) 0.271
 Incretins (n, %) 12 (21.4) 6 (16.7) 0.574
 Statin (n, %) 40 (71.4) 22 (61.1) 0.354
Plaque features in OCT
 Minimal FCT (µm) 80.4 ± 27.0 51.3 ± 9.4 < 0.001
 Mean FCT (µm) 125.7 ± 29.5 97.2 ± 18.0 < 0.001
 Lipid volume index (mm*°) 493.8 ± 361.1 1105.4 ± 343.8 < 0.001
 Presence of macrophages (n,  %) 23 (41.1) 25 (69.4) 0.002
  1. ACEi ACE-inhibitors, ACS acute coronary syndrome, BMI body mass index, BP blood pressure, ARB angiotensin receptor blockers, CABG coronary artery bypass graft, CAD coronary artery disease, CK creatin-kinase, CK-MB creatin-kinase muscle-brain, CRP C-reactive protein, FCT fibrous cap thickness, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, HDL high density lipoprotein, LDH lactate dehydrogenase, LDL low density lipoprotein, PCI percutaneous coronary intervention