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Table 1 Baseline characteristics of study patients

From: Improved long-term cardiovascular outcomes after intensive versus standard screening of diabetic complications: an observational study

Characteristics Standard screening (N = 683) Intensive screening (N = 357) SMD p
Age 60.7 ± 12.1 60.0 ± 8.9 0.07 0.29
Female (%) 238 (34.8%) 121 (33.9%) 0.02 0.76
Duration of diabetes (years) 7.9 ± 6.6 8.4 ± 7.5 − 0.08 0.27
BMI (kg/m2) 29.4 ± 5.0 29.2 ± 5.0 0.04 0.51
Systolic BP (mmHg) 135.7 ± 19.9 136.3 ± 16.8 − 0.03 0.64
Dyastolic BP (mmHg) 81.8 ± 11.3 81.7 ± 10.1 0.00 0.96
HbA1c (%) (mmol/mol) 7.5 ± 1.5 (58 ± 12) 7.5 ± 1.4 (58 ± 11) − 0.03 0.61
Total cholesterol (mg/dl) 183.0 ± 40.5 183.1 ± 35.9 0.00 0.99
HDL-cholesterol (mg/dl) 49.2 ± 13.7 49.4 ± 14.6 − 0.01 0.84
Triglicerides (mg/dl) 131.8 ± 68.9 133.1 ± 75.2 − 0.02 0.78
LDL cholesterol (mg/dl) 107.2 ± 35.3 107.1 ± 31.2 0.00 0.95
Creatinine (mg/dl) 0.87 ± 0.20 0.86 ± 0.21 0.03 0.69
eGFR (ml/min/1.73 m2) 87.0 ± 17.7 87.9 ± 16.9 − 0.05 0.43
Albuminuria     0.83
Normoalbuminuria N (%) 495 (72.5%) 254 (71.1%) 0.03  
Microalbuminuria N (%) 155 (22.7%) 83 (23.2%) − 0.01  
Macroalbuminuria N (%) 33 (4.8%) 20 (5.6%) − 0.03  
Medical treatment
 Any glucose-lowering drugs N (%) 579 (84.8%) 312 (87.4%) − 0.08 0.25
 Metformin alone N (%) 240 (35.1%) 118 (33.1%) 0.04 0.50
 Insulin N (%) 130 (19.0%) 76 (21.3%) − 0.04 0.39
 Innovative therapies N (%) 58 (8.5%) 35 (9.8%) − 0.05 0.48
 ACEi/ARBs N (%) 452 (66.2%) 242 (67.8%) − 0.04 0.60
 Statin N (%) 436 (63.8%) 235 (65.8%) − 0.04 0.52
 Lipid-lowering therapy N (%) 474 (69.4%) 253 (70.9%) − 0.04 0.62
 Anti-platelet therapy N (%) 224 (32.8%) 113 (31.7%) 0.03 0.71
Medical history
 CAD or CerVD events N (%) 59 (8.6%) 31 (8.7%) 0.00 0.98
 Macroangiopathy N (%) 285 (41.7%) 150 (42.0%) − 0.01 0.93
  Carotid atheroma or PAD, % 37.6% 40.1%   
  CAD, % 8.0% 8.1%   
  CerVD, % 0.7% 0.6%   
 Microangiopathy N (%) 344 (50.4%) 199 (55.7%) − 0.11 0.10
  Diabetic nephropathy, % 32.3% 31.9%   
  Diabetic retinopathy, % 33.8% 30.3%   
  Diabetic neuropathy, % 15.2% 19.0%   
CKD N (%) 59 (8.6%) 29 (8.1%) 0.02 0.78
  1. SMD standardized mean difference, BMI body mass index, eGFR glomerular filtration rate, CKD chronic kidney disease, ACEi angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors, ARBs angiotensin receptor blockers, CAD coronary artery disease, CerVD cerebrovascular disease, PAD peripheral arterial disease