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Table 1 Baseline patient characteristics

From: Comparative risk evaluation for cardiovascular events associated with dapagliflozin vs. empagliflozin in real-world type 2 diabetes patients: a multi-institutional cohort study

  Dapagliflozin Empagliflozin P value
Patients, n (%) 5812 (45.8) 6869 (54.2)  
Age, n (%), years < 0.001
 < 65 4041 (69.5) 4497 (65.5)  
 65 1771 (30.5) 2372 (34.5)  
Female, n (%) 2647 (45.5) 2920 (42.5) < 0.001
PDD/DDD, mean (SD)a 0.9 (0.2) 0.8 (0.4) < 0.001
Prescribed daily dose, n (SD)b < 0.001
 Low dose, n (%) 1451 (25.0) 4071 (59.3)  
 Full dose, n (%) 4361 (75.0) 2798 (40.7)  
BMI, n (%), kg/m2 0.576
 < 30 3905 (67.2) 4583 (66.7)  
 ≥ 30 1907 (32.8) 2286 (33.3)  
HbA1c, n (%), % < 0.001
 < 8.5 2541 (43.7) 3308 (48.2)  
 ≥ 8.5 3271 (56.3) 3561 (51.8)  
eGFR, n (%), mL/min/1.73 m2 < 0.001
 < 60 347 (6.0) 930 (13.6)  
 60–90 2102 (36.2) 2473 (36.0)  
 ≥ 90 3363 (57.9) 3466 (50.5)  
UACR, n (%), mg/g < 0.001
 < 30 3007 (51.7) 3336 (48.6)  
 30–300 1834 (31.6) 2199 (32.0)  
 ≥ 300 971 (16.7) 1334 (19.4)  
LDL, n (%), mg/dL 0.505
 ≥ 100 104 (1.8) 134 (2.0)  
 < 100 5708 (98.2) 6735 (98.0)  
Index year, n (%) < 0.001
 2016 3326 (57.2) 3624 (52.8)  
 2017 2486 (42.8) 3245 (47.2)  
Hospital level, n (%) < 0.001
 Medical centers 3224 (55.5) 3927 (57.2)  
 Regional hospitals 1540 (26.5) 1533 (22.3)  
 District hospitals 1048 (18.0) 1409 (20.5)  
Department, n (%) < 0.001
 Metabolism and endocrinology 3964 (68.2) 4206 (61.2)  
 Cardiology 1181 (20.3) 1792 (26.1)  
 Others 667 (11.5) 871 (12.7)  
Comorbidity, n (%)
 Hypertension 3718 (64.0) 4606 (67.1) < 0.001
 Hyperlipidemia 4274 (73.5) 4974 (72.4) 0.155
 Coronary heart diseasec 832 (14.3) 1207 (17.6) < 0.001
 Atrial fibrillation 113 (1.9) 166 (2.4) 0.071
 Peripheral artery disease 67 (1.2) 108 (1.6) 0.044
 Diabetic retinopathy 475 (8.2) 577 (8.4) 0.644
 Diabetic neuropathy 583 (10.0) 627 (9.1) 0.085
 Diabetic nephropathy 1510 (26.0) 1893 (27.6) 0.046
 Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease 126 (2.2) 177 (2.6) 0.133
 Liver disease 1052 (18.1) 1278 (18.6) 0.465
 Depression 85 (1.5) 102 (1.5) 0.917
 Schizophrenia 24 (0.4) 19 (0.3) 0.188
 Cancer 366 (6.3) 445 (6.5) 0.678
Charlson comorbidity index score, n (%) 0.007
 < 2 2440 (42.0) 2722 (39.6)  
 ≥ 2 3372 (58.0) 4147 (60.4)  
Previous hospitalization, n (%) 554 (9.5) 815 (11.9) < 0.001
Concomitant medications, n (%)
 Anti-platelet agents 1549 (26.7) 2074 (30.2) < 0.001
 Anti-coagulant agents 100 (1.7) 151 (2.2) 0.054
 Beta blockers 1249 (21.5) 1690 (24.6) < 0.001
 Angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin receptor blockers 3235 (55.7) 4129 (60.1) < 0.001
 Calcium channel blockers 2056 (35.4) 2775 (40.4) < 0.001
 Loop diuretics 153 (2.6) 282 (4.1) < 0.001
 Thiazides 270 (4.7) 342 (5.0) 0.383
 Mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist 59 (1.0) 124 (1.8) < 0.001
 Statin 3662 (63.0) 4538 (66.1) < 0.001
 Fibrate 535 (9.2) 717 (10.4) 0.020
 Ezetimibe 646 (11.1) 793 (11.5) 0.447
 Metformin 5364 (92.3) 6124 (89.2) < 0.001
 Sulfonylurea 3604 (62.0) 3751 (54.6) < 0.001
 Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors 3616 (62.2) 4437 (64.6) 0.006
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitors 1002 (17.2) 1240 (18.1) 0.232
 Glinides 94 (1.6) 158 (2.3) 0.006
 Thiazolidinediones 1552 (26.7) 1584 (23.1) < 0.001
 Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptors antagonist 75 (1.3) 156 (2.3) < 0.001
 Insulin 1083 (18.6) 1507 (21.9) < 0.001
 Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs 475 (8.2) 542 (7.9) 0.560
  1. BMI body mass index, DDD defined daily dose, eGFR estimated glomerular filtration rate, LDL low-density lipoprotein, PDD prescribed daily dose, UACR urine albumin–creatinine ratio
  2. aThe ratio of prescribed daily dose (PDD)/defined daily dose (DDD) is defined by the WHO Collaborating Center (https://www.whocc.no/atc_ddd_index/) for drug comparisons [62]; that is, the PDD/DDD ratio of patients who used 10 mg dapagliflozin daily is equal to 17.5 mg empagliflozin (PDD/DDD ratio = 1)
  3. bLow dose: dapagliflozin < 10 mg and empagliflozin < 25 mg; full dose: dapagliflozin 10 mg and empagliflozin 25 mg
  4. cMyocardial infarction was not included because prevalent myocardial infarction cases were excluded before initiation of SGLT2 inhibitors in this study