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Table 1 Characteristics and biochemical indicators of pigs at the 18th week

From: Dapagliflozin improves left ventricular remodeling and aorta sympathetic tone in a pig model of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

  Normal HFpEF DAPA
n 10 10 10
BW (kg) 63.3 ± 7.2 79.6 ± 5.4a 69.7 ± 6.5a,b
HR (bpm) 74.2 ± 9.6 61.3 ± 7.8 75.9 ± 5.3
Plasma biochemistry
TC (mg/dl) 67.4 ± 3.3 543.5 ± 54.9a 515.7 ± 49.7a
LDL (mg/dl) 23.5 ± 3.1 352.7 ± 32.8a 375.8 ± 26.8a
HDL (mg/dl) 35.7 ± 2.3 196.4 ± 23.1a 180.7 ± 28.3a
TG (mg/dl) 28.6 ± 6.8 54.7 ± 13.1a 59.6 ± 12.4a
HbA1c (%) 5.3 ± 1.2 5.6 ± 0.8 5.5 ± 1.1
Urine biochemistry
Glucose (g/24 h) 0.1 ± 0.01 0.1 ± 0.01 24.0 ± 2.1a,b
Na+ (mmol/24 h) 63.0 ± 5.4 54.6 ± 5.1a 93.4 ± 8.5a,b
Plasma ELISA (pg/ml)
BNP 56.9 ± 14.5 76.2 ± 15.3a 77.3 ± 10.7a
E 76.9 ± 14.5 125.2 ± 17.3a 113.2 ± 28.7a,b
NE 60.7 ± 14.3 179.6 ± 17.3a 163.8 ± 20.9a,b
Ang II 200.8 ± 19.7 476.5 ± 26.3a 467.4 ± 33.1a
Tissue ELISA (NE) (pg/ug)
LA 11.6 ± 4.2 19.8 ± 5.9a 18.4 ± 3.5a
LV 15.1 ± 3.6 29.7 ± 3.8a 27.5 ± 8.7a
Aorta 25.6 ± 7.9 71.4 ± 13.5a 55.6 ± 11.9a,b
Kidney 8.2 ± 3.1 16.3 ± 4.7a 18.9 ± 3.0a
  1. Values are expressed as the mean ± SD. Statistical analyses were performed by one-way ANOVA followed by the Bonferroni post hoc test
  2. ap < 0.05 vs. the Normal group
  3. bp < 0.05 vs. the HFpEF group