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Table 1 Characteristics of study participants in baseline, follow-up and outcome surveys by race and sex

From: Temporal relationship between inflammation and insulin resistance and their joint effect on hyperglycemia: the Bogalusa Heart Study

  White Black p for race differencea
Male (n = 138) Female (n = 222) Male (n = 38) Female (n = 111) Male Female
Baseline survey
 Age (years) 36.4 (4.5) 36.2 (4.2) 36.6 (4.2) 35.0 (4.5) 0.975 0.041
 BMI (kg/m2) 28.1 (4.9) 27.2 (6.2) 29.4 (6.7) 31.3 (7.8) 0.286 < 0.001
 Smoking, n (%) 35 (25.4) 41 (18.5) 15 (39.5) 33 (29.7) 0.088 0.020
 Alcohol drinking, n (%) 54 (39.1) 98 (44.1) 8 (21.1) 42 (37.8) 0.039 0.272
 Glucose (mg/dL) 83.5 (9.4)** 79.6 (8.1) 83.2 (8.9) 81.2 (9.3) 0.861 0.121
 Insulin (μU/mL)b 10.0 (7.0–14.0)* 8.0 (6.0–13.0) 9.0 (5.0–17.0) 11.0 (7.0–17.0) 0.782 0.001
 HOMA-IRb 2.04 (1.45–2.82)* 1.65 (1.11–2.60) 1.89 (1.06–3.66) 2.27 (1.43–3.46) 0.786 0.001
 hsCRP (mg/L)b 0.93 (0.37–1.93)** 1.65 (0.71–4.15) 1.78 (0.60–3.09) 2.07 (0.58–4.80) 0.131 0.830
 Pre-diabetes, n (%) 5 (3.6) 3 (1.4) 2 (5.3) 2 (1.8) 0.155 0.255
Follow-up survey
 Age (years) 43.2 (4.7) 43.0 (4.5) 43.6 (4.5) 41.9 (4.7) 0.674 0.043
 Follow-up period (years) 6.8 (0.9) 6.8 (0.9) 7.0 (0.8) 6.9 (0.9) 0.222 0.123
 BMI (kg/m2) 29.6 (5.6) 28.6 (6.7) 31.8 (8.2) 33.0 (8.2) 0.131 < 0.001
 Smoking, n (%) 32 (23.2) 50 (22.5) 15 (39.5) 33 (29.7) 0.045 0.152
 Alcohol drinking, n (%) 52 (37.7) 91 (41.0) 7 (18.4) 38 (34.2) 0.026 0.233
 Glucose (mg/dL) 90.6 (10.7)** 86.7 (8.8) 92.5 (12.2)** 88.8 (8.6) 0.345 0.036
 Insulin (μU/mL)b 10.1 (6.3–16.2)* 8.2 (5.1–13.0) 13.6 (6.7–24.0) 12.8 (6.96–18.9) 0.052 < 0.001
 HOMA-IRb 2.26 (1.35–3.63)* 1.74 (1.04–3.00) 3.33 (1.20–5.78) 2.82 (1.43–4.56) 0.065 < 0.001
 hsCRP (mg/L)b 0.93 (0.41–1.97)** 1.35 (0.52–3.14) 1.09 (0.56–2.94) 2.07 (0.58–4.80) 0.186 0.062
 Pre-diabetes, n (%) 22 (15.9)* 19 (8.6) 11 (29.0)** 10 (9.0) 0.069 0.891
Outcome survey
 Age (years) 49.6 (4.5) 49.5 (4.2) 50.1 (4.2)* 48.0 (4.7) 0.547 0.003
 Follow-up period (year)c 6.0 (1.1) 6.1 (1.1) 6.2 (1.1) 5.9 (1.1) 0.386 0.067
 BMI (kg/m2) 30.3 (5.4) 29.5 (6.7) 32.3 (8.6) 34.9 (8.5) 0.085 < 0.001
 Smoking, n (%) 33 (23.9) 45 (20.3) 20 (52.6)** 27 (24.3) < 0.001 0.397
 Alcohol drinking, n (%) 71 (51.5) 88 (55.4) 18 (47.4)** 18 (16.2) 0.656 < 0.001
 Hyperglycemia, n (%) 76 (55.1)** 78 (35.1) 27 (71.1)* 50 (45.1) 0.077 0.080
 Pre-diabetes, n (%) 61 (44.2)** 51 (22.9) 17 (44.8)* 34 (30.7) 0.288 0.091
 T2DM, n (%) 15 (10.9) 27 (12.2) 10 (26.3) 16 (14.4) 0.016 0.563
  1. Continuous variables are presented as means (SD) or medians (interquartile range)
  2. BMI, body mass index; hsCRP, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein; HOMA-IR, homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance; T2DM, type 2 diabetes mellitus
  3. Sex difference within race: * p < 0.05; ** p < 0.01
  4. ap values for race difference in continuous variables were adjusted for age
  5. bMedian (interquartile range)
  6. cFollow-up period from the time point of the follow-up survey