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Table 1 Baseline characteristics (total population n = 943)

From: Successful revascularization versus medical therapy in diabetic patients with stable right coronary artery chronic total occlusion: a retrospective cohort study

  CTO-MT (n = 443) CTO-SR (n = 500) P value
Clinical characteristics
 Age (years) 60.65 ± 10.58 59.97 ± 8.78 0.285
 Male 322 (72.7) 392 (78.4) 0.041
 Hypertension 308 (69.5) 337 (67.4) 0.483
 Dyslipidemia 152 (34.3) 139 (27.8) 0.031
 PVD 18 (4.1) 15 (3.0) 0.375
 Prior MI 234 (52.8) 285 (57.0) 0.198
 Prior PCI 90 (20.3) 72 (14.4) 0.016
 Prior stroke 35 (7.9) 22 (4.4) 0.024
 Heart failure 125 (28.2) 149 (29.8) 0.593
 Systolic heart failure 52 (11.7) 63 (12.6) 0.686
 Diastolic heart failure 73 (16.5) 86 (17.2) 0.768
 CKD 15 (3.4) 10 (2.0) 0.186
 COPD/asthma 4 (0.9) 4 (0.8) 0.864
 Hyperuricemia 97 (21.9) 86 (17.2) 0.069
 Smoking 216 (48.8) 266 (53.2) 0.173
 Drinking 74 (16.7) 91 (18.2) 0.546
 BMI (kg/m2) 26.46 ± 3.31 26.67 ± 3.02 0.304
 LVEF (%) 61.00 (55.00–66.50) 60.00 (55.00–66.00) 0.153
 RWMA 144 (32.5) 160 (32.0) 0.868
 Fasting blood glucose(mmol/L) 7.20 (6.25–9.31) 7.41 (6.13–9.26) 0.727
 HbA1c (%)b 7.3 (6.7–8.0) 7.3 (6.9–7.9) 0.753
Medical treatment
 Aspirin 428 (96.8) 429 (98.4) 0.114
 P2Y12 inhibitor 396 (89.6) 410 (82.3) 0.001
 Statin 422 (95.5) 462 (92.8) 0.080
 Nitrites 262 (59.3) 152 (30.5) 0.000
 Beta-blocker 341 (77.1) 405 (81.3) 0.114
 CCB 123 (27.8) 123 (24.7) 0.276
 ACEI/ARB 246 (55.7) 272 (54.6) 0.750
 Insulin 160 (36.1) 202 (40.4) 0.177
 Sulfonylureas 64 (14.4) 66 (13.2) 0.579
 Glinide 20 (4.5) 18 (3.6) 0.476
 Biguanides 152 (34.3) 195 (39.0) 0.136
 Thiazolidinediones 48 (10.8) 54 (10.8) 0.986
 Alpha-glucosidase inhibitor 159 (35.9) 151 (30.2) 0.063
Angiographic characteristics
 Dominance artery (right) 396 (89.4) 488 (97.6) 0.000
Number of diseased vessels
 1 115 (26.0) 94 (18.8) 0.008
 2 151 (34.1) 201 (40.2) 0.053
 3 177 (40.0) 205 (41.0) 0.744
 Syntax scorea 20.00 (13.00–27.00) 20.00 (17.00–23.00) 0.400
 Rentrop grade ≥ 2a 309 (82.4) 368 (88.0) 0.025
 Abrupt stumpa 188 (50.1) 205 (49.0) 0.759
 Calcificationa 73 (19.5) 80 (19.1) 0.907
 Bending ≥ 45°a 327 (87.2) 361 (86.4) 0.729
 CTO length ≥ 20 mma 278 (74.1) 308 (73.7) 0.886
Procedural characteristics
 Retrograde approachc 3 (1.6) 41 (13.3) 0.000
 Perforationc 4 (0.9) 1 (0.2) 0.193
 Pericardial effusionc 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Emergency surgeryc 0 (0) 0 (0)
 Contrast retention/dissectionc 2 (0.5) 5 (1.0) 0.457
 Thread offc 1 (0.2) 0 (0) 0.470
 Sudden cardiac arrestc 0 (0) 1 (0.2) 1.000
 Death during hospitalizationc 1 (0.2) 3 (0.6) 0.627
  1. Values are n (%), mean ± SD or median with interquartile range
  2. PCI percutaneous transluminal coronary intervention, MT medical therapy, CABG coronary artery bypass grafting, PVD peripheral vascular disease, MI myocardial infarction, CKD chronic kidney disease, COPD chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, LVEF left ventricular ejection fraction, BMI body mass index, CCB calcium-channel blocker, ACEI/ARB angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor/angiotensin-receptor blocker; CTO chronic total occlusion, HF heart failure, RWMA reginal wall motion abnormality
  3. aCine angiograms records got from 794 (84.10%) individuals
  4. bHbA1c got from 896 (95.02%) individuals
  5. cOnly patients who were treated with PCI